2The Mound Builder Cultures of Ohio Designed as an Ohio History Unit lessonGrade Level 8
3Objectives Students will: 1. Be able to identify the 3 Mound Builder Cultures of the Ohio Valley Region.2. Be able to identify specific moundconstructions in Ohio with the specificculture that built them.3. Be able to illustrate a timeline of mound builderactivities in the Ohio Valley Region.
4Materials NeededClay, cardboard, paint and brushes to construct models of mounds.Notebook and pencil for taking field notes.Camera and film for taking photographs of points of interest on field trips.
5Student ActivitiesStudents will participate in a day long field trip to Miamisburg Mound Park, Great Serpent Mound State Park, and Ft. Ancient State Park and museum.Students will construct scale models of the Great Serpent Mound and the Miamisburg Mound as a class group project.
6Web SitesThe Miamisburg Mound Adena Mound State MemorialThe Ohio Historical Society: Fort AncientHopewell Mound BuildersAmerican Treasures of the Library of CongressDon Wesley. The Great Serpent Mound
7Websites American Treasures of the Library of Congress Don Wesley-The Serpent Mound
8The Mound Builder Cultures of Ohio There were 3 distinct Mound Builder Cultures in Ohio. They were, in chronological order:The AdenaThe HopewellThe Fort Ancient People
9The Adena CultureThe Adena peoples were the first Mound Builder Culture in Ohio.They flourished from approximately 1,000 B.C.E. to the 1st century of the Common Era.They made highly ornate objects from local stone, such as this pipe in the figure of a man.
10Adena Mounds Adena Mounds are large and conical in shape. They were always used as burial mounds. They always contain multiple interments.The largest Adena Mound in Ohio is the Miamisburg Mound, at over 68 feet in height.
11The Miamisburg Mound The Miamisburg Mound is the largest Adena mound in the state of Ohio. It is 68 feet tall. It’s conical shape is typicalof Adena multiple burial mounds.
12The Hopewell CultureThe Hopewell Culture was the 2nd Mound Builder Culture to appear in Ohio.They crafted magnificent ritual and decorative objects from flint, mica, shells, and copper.The Hopewell Culture flourished from approximately 100 B.C.E to around the year 600 of the Common Era.Scholars are still uncertain if the Hopewell were an entirely new people who moved into the Ohio Valley, or a continuation of the previous Adena Culture.
13Hopewell MoundsHopewell burial mounds were small in size, many times only 3 or 4 feet in height.Hopewell burial mounds usually only contain a single interment.In some cases the Hopewell peoples first cremated their dead, and then covered the cremated remains with mounds of earth.Hopewell interments are usually very rich in grave artifacts.
14Hopewell MoundsMultiple Hopewell mounds at the Mound City Group are bothconical and “loaf” shaped. They are smaller than Adena Mounds
15Hopewell EarthworksIn addition to burial mounds, the Hopewell peoples also constructed very large geometrically shaped earthworks.These earthworks were constructed of banked earth. They were constructed in circular, square, and octagonal shapes, and sometimes enclosed many acres of land.Scholars believe that these earthworks were used for large ritual gatherings.
16The Newark EarthworksAn important Hopewell site is the Newark Works, located in Newark, Ohio.The earthworks there include a large circle and octagon construction.Scholars believe the earthworks are oriented to solar and lunar events, such as the solstices and the rising points of the moon.
18The Fort Ancient Culture The last Mound Builder culture to inhabit Ohio has been named the Fort Ancient culture, after the construction in Warren County, Ohio, known as Fort Ancient.Fort Ancient has earthen bank walls, but is not laid out in any geometrical shape.The Fort Ancient Culture flourished from approximately 1,000 C.E. to 1500 C.E.
19The Great Serpent Mound Besides building enclosed earthen structures such a Fort Ancient, scholars now believe that the Fort Ancient peoples also constructed the Great Serpent Mound, in Adams County, Ohio.The Great Serpent Mound is an effigy mound, constructed of banked earth, in the shape of an uncoiling snake that is preparing to swallow an egg.
21ConclusionThe 3 Mound Builder Cultures were the Adena, the Hopewell, and the Fort Ancient People. From 1,000 B.C.E to 500 C.E., these distinct cultures built earthen constructions in Ohio.The Adena built large conical mounds. The Hopewell built small conical mounds and large geometric earthworks. The Fort Ancient people built embanked non-geometrical enclosures, and the Great Serpent Mound.