Presentation on theme: "Forensic identification of skeletal remains from members of Ernesto Che Guevara's guerrilas in Boliva based on DNA typing  Richard Wolfe PBIO 427."— Presentation transcript:
Forensic identification of skeletal remains from members of Ernesto Che Guevara's guerrilas in Boliva based on DNA typing  Richard Wolfe PBIO 427
Che Guevara Argentine doctor 1956 helped Fidel Castro invade Cuba  1965 left Cuba for revolution in Congo- Kinshasa  1966 Bolivia led 50 guerrillas 1967 captured and executed
Bolivia 1995 created commission to find remains of Che's guerrilla members Buried in countryside Found 2 burial sites Canada del Arroyo site Florida Provence site
Suspected Remains Canada del Arroyo site Jaime Arana Campero (Bolivia) Francisco Huanca Flores (Bolivia) Lucio Edilberto Galvan (Peru) Octavio de la Concepcion (Cuba) Florida Provence site Carlos Coello (Cuba)
Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) Relatively new process in 1995 Considered imperative for 2 Cubans and Peruvian Both Cubans had wife and a child Peruvian only had a brother so mitochondrial DNA analysis At certain loci there are short (2-7bp) segments of DNA that repeat a variable of times There are two copies of these areas, from father and mother The number of repeats is inherited, one from each parent The more loci compared gives a higher probability of identification
DNA Extraction Bones buried 30 years in poor condition Femoral (thigh) in all cases used Samples sent to 2 laboratories in Cuba For each bone sample DNA extracted twice plus a blank DNA extracted using a detergent, protease, organic extraction, and spin dialysis
Amplification STRs were amplified by PCR Primer sets for 9 loci were used After amplification STRs run on polyacrylamide gel using electrophoresis Each sample was visually compared to a known ladder PCR used to amplify mtDNA from Peruvian bone sample
Conclusion No exclusion pattern for both Cuban remains Both Cuban remains identified using STRs The Peruvian could not be identified using paternity analysis because only a brother was available When mtDNA was compared they were different, neither a positive id nor an exclusion Historical and anthropological evidence and a positive identification of the two Cubans conclude the identities of the other three remains The positive identification of members of the Ernesto “Che” Guevara guerrilla is important for both historical and humanitarian reasons.
References 1. Lioenart R, et al; Forensic identification of skeletal remains from members of Ernesto Che Guevara's guerrillas in Bolivia based on DNA typing. Int J Legal Med. 2000, 113:98- 101. 2. www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,991268,00.htmlwww.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,991268,00.html 3. Che picture. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CheHigh.jpghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CheHigh.jpg 4. Bolivia map. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boliviahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolivia 5. Nadella V; Lecture 7.pdf. PBIO428. 2011.