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Chapter 6-Key Issue 3 Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Places of Worship Christians-church (from Greek term for lord, master, power)

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6-Key Issue 3 Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Places of Worship Christians-church (from Greek term for lord, master, power)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6-Key Issue 3 Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patterns? Places of Worship Christians-church (from Greek term for lord, master, power)

2 Church Architecture Early churches modeled after Roman buildings for public assembly-basilicas Rectangular building- Raised alter Eastern Orthodox churches-architectural style Byzantine Empire (5 th century)-highly ornate with prominent domes Muslim Mosques-viewed as a location for community assembly for worship Central courtyard; pulpit faces east-Makkah Minarets- towers that surround mosques-it is in these minarets that people are summoned to worship known as muzzan

3 Hindu Temples/Buddhist and Shintoist Pagodas Hindu temple-home or more than on god Appears as a shrine Typically small, dimly lit interior room Contains a symbolic artifact or image of the god Pagodas are indicative of Buddhist/Shinto religion Tall many-sided towers arranged in tiers, balconies, slanting roofs Contains relics believed to be portions of Buddha’s body or clothing

4 Baha’i Houses of Worship Built 7 Houses of Worship in Wilmette, IL; Frankfurt, Germany; Sydney, Australia; New Delhi, India; Apia, Western Samoa; Panama City, Panama; Ashkabad, Russia; & Kampala, Uganda These houses of worship dispersed to different continents to dramatize Baha’i as a universalizing religion with adherents all over the world

5 Sacred Space Burial practices vary in different religions Usually occurs in a cemetery for Christians, Mulims, Jews Ancient Rome- underground passages known as catacombs- early Christians buried here Some countries (China) need their land for agriculture rather than cemeteries, so cremation is encouraged Hindus use cremation rather than burial Hindus wash body first with water from Ganges River Cremation considered act of purification

6 Cremation (continued) Motivation for cremation comes from unwillingness of nomads to leave their dead behind for fear that body would be attacked from wild animals or evil spirits It was believed that cremation could free soul from body for departure to afterworld Zoroastrians expose dead to scavenging birds & animals Did not want body to contaminate sacred elements of fire, earth, or water Tibetan Buddhists practice this exposure with cremation reserved for the most exalted priests

7 Religious Settlements Salt Lake City- construction in 1848 by Mormons-prophet Joseph Smith- considered to be a utopian settlement Early New England settlers members of Puritan Protestant denomination Roman Catholic immigrants have given religious place names or toponyms to their settlements in New World particularly in Quebec and southwest U.S.

8 Hierarchial Religions Hierarchial religion has well-defined geographic structure & organizes territory in local administrative structure Roman Catholicism is a great example of this hierarchial religion Roman Catholics organized into an administrative structure accountable to Pope in Rome (Vatican City) Pope-bishop of the Diocese of Rome Archbishops report to Pope-each heads province which is a group of dioceses

9 Roman Catholic Hierarchy Archbishop is bishop of one diocese within province Some distinguished archbishops elevated to rank of cardinal Reporting to each archbishop are bishops- each administers a diocese Diocese-several thousand of these Diocese basic unit of geographic organization in Roman Catholic Church Bishop’s headquarters called “see”-largest city in diocese Diocese spatially divided into parishes, each headed by priest

10 Hierarchial Religions (continued) Latter-Day Saints- Mormons exercise strong organization of landscape Territory occupied by Mormons in Utah & portions of surrounding states organized into wards with a population of 750 each Autonomous religions Islam has most autonomy Strong unity within Islamic world with high degree of communication & migration Protestant denomination selects leadership within various sects, such as Presbyterian

11 Protestant Denominations Presbyterian organized into presbytery which are governed by synod with general assembly as ultimate authority over all churches Each Presbyterian church governed by elected board of directors with lay members Episcopalian, Lutheran, Methodist churches have hierarchial structures

12 Ethnic Religions Judaism and Hinduism-no centralized structure of religious control In Judaism, in order to conduct full service, requires presence of 10 adult males Hinduism-autonomous-worship is done usually alone or with others in the household Share ideas through pilgrimages and reading traditional writings

13 Key Issue 4-Chapter 6 Afghans welcomed Taliban (“religious students”) in 1996 Once in control, Taliban imposed very strict laws (for example, men beaten for shaving their beards, stoned for committing adultery, homosexuals-buried alive, prostitutes hanged in front of large crowds, thieves had hands cut off, & women wearing nail polish had their fingers cut off) Islamic scholars criticized Taliban as poorly educated and misreading Koran

14 Taliban Versus Western Values Taliban believed they had been called by Allah to do these things Western (non-Islamic) ideas banned Converted soccer stadium into settings for executions and floggings Old Buddhist statues destroyed 2001 because they were worshipped as images in violation of Islam

15 Hinduism Versus Social Equality Hinduism maintains a rigid caste system (people are categorized according to their specific caste) Dates back to 1500 B.C. when Aryans invaded India Brahmans (priests & top administrators/scholars) Kshatriyas-warriors Vaisyas-merchants Sudras-agricultural workers or artisans Untouchables or outcasts

16 Eastern Orthodox Christianity 1721 Czar Peter the Great made Russian Orthodox Church part of the government Following Bolshevik revolution in 1917 (which overthrew czar or tsar) Communist government pursued nonreligious programs Marxism (Karl Marx) became official doctrine of Soviet Union End of communist rule in late 20 th century brought a religious revival to region formerly called Soviet Union

17 Religion Versus Communism Buddhists were hurt by Vietnam War in late 60s early 70s U.S. raids in Laos & Cambodia destroyed many Buddhist shrines Others were vandalized by Vietnamese & Khmer Rouge Cambodian communists To protest these actions by the Communists Buddhists immolated (burned) themselves Current Communist governments in Southeast Asia have discouraged religious activities & permitted monuments to decay, specifically Angkor Wat in Cambodia which is considered one of the world’s most beautiful Buddhist structures

18 Religious Wars in Middle East Conflict in this region has existed for over 2000 years Christians & Muslims have fought over a small strip of land in Eastern Mediterranean Jews, Christians, and Muslims all trace their origins to Abraham in Old Testament 3 religions have found it difficult to peaceably share the same territory Judaism makes their claim to the territory it calls the Promised Land Romans controlled area which they called Palestine-dispersed Jews from Palestine-only a few were allowed to stay in region

19 Middle East (Southwest Asia) Islam replaced Christianity in Palestine after Muslim army conquered in 7 th century A.D. Christians consider Palestine to be the Holy Land and Jerusalem the Holy City Muslims consnider Jerusalem as their 3 rd holiest city (after Mecca-Makkah & Medina-Madinah) because this is the place from which Muhammad is thought to have ascended to heaven

20 Crusades 7 th century, Muslims aka Arabs captured most of Middle East including Palestine & Jerusalem Arab army diffused Arabic language across Middle East & converted people from Christianity to Islam Also moved across North Africa and invaded Europe at Gibraltar

21 Crusades In East captured Eastern Orthodox Christianity’s most important city, Constaninople (present day Istanbul, Turkey) To recapture Holy Land from Muslim conquerors, European Christians set out on military campaigns known as Crusades over a 150 year period

22 Jews Versus Muslims-Palestine Muslim Ottoman Empire controlled Palestine for 2 centuries ( ) Great Britain took over Palestine (League of Nations and later from United Nations) United Nations partitioned Palestine into 2 independent states, one Jewish, one Muslim Controversy over control of Gaza Strip, Golan Heights, West Bank continue to plague the region

23 Palestinian and Israeli Perspective Palestinian fight against Israel coordinated by PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) under leadership of Yassir Arafat (who is now deceased) Israel sees itself as a small country with Jewish majority surrounded by hostile Muslim Arabs Country’s major population centers close to international borders making them vulnerable to attacks Tel Aviv and Haifa very close to Palestinian controlled territory

24 Israelia Palestinain Conflict Local landforms create geographical problems Ultimate obstacle to peace in Middle East is status of Jerusalem All groups have difficulty coexisting with each other Constant violence in region, suicide bomber/car bombs, etc.

25 Religious Wars in Ireland Ireland (island of Eire)-Republic of Ireland which occupies five-sixths of island is 92% Roman Catholic Island’s northern one-sixth part of the UK rather than Ireland is 58% Protestant and 42% Roman Catholic Small number of Roman Catholics in Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland joined the Irish Republican Army (IRA)-a militant organization dedicated to achieving Irish national unity


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