Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17: Age of Absolute Monarchs Sections 1 & 2 Extending Spanish Power France Under Louis XIV."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 17: Age of Absolute Monarchs Sections 1 & 2 Extending Spanish Power France Under Louis XIV
The Hapsburg Empire Charles V (1506-1556) 1500s: Spain emerged as a European power 1506: inherited father Philip I (Handsome) of Spain’s lands in the Netherlands; mother was Joanna “the mad” of Castile (became deranged when Philip died of typhus at age 28); aunt was Joanna’s sister Catherine (married Henry VIII!) 1519: Charles V/Charles I of Spain (grandson of Isabella & Ferdinand) inherited a huge empire (Spain, Netherlands, HRE). Ruled an empire in which “the sun does not set.” Devout Catholic…but forced to recognize Peace of Augsburg (1555) Greatest enemy: Ottoman Empire & Suleiman the Magnificent
Abdication of Charles V (1556) 1556: He gave up his empire to brother, next HRE, Ferdinand (Hapsburg lands) & son Philip (Spain, Netherlands, S. Italy and possessions in the Americas). Retired to a monastery in Yuste, Spain Died Sept. 21, 1558 of malaria; also suffered from severe gout His remains were transferred to El Escorial 26 years later by his son Philip II.
Suleiman the Magnificent 1520-1566 Known as the Lawgiver in the Islamic world Fair ruler, opponent of corruption, patron of artists & philosophers He was a goldsmith & poet Oversaw Golden Age of Ottoman Empire Annexed Middle East/North Africa; conquered Rhodes, Belgrade, Hungary and laid siege to Vienna Died in his tent in Hungary (age 72)
Philip II (1556-1598) & Divine Right Ruled Spain as absolute monarch for 42 yrs. Believed his authority to rule came from god = divine right Strengthened the govt. and defended the Counter Reformation; supported the Inquisition Lived in somber palace of San Lorenzo de El Escorial outside Madrid; served as both a monastery and burial place --- after a horrible experience accompanying his mother’s corpse from N. Spain to Granada for burial next to his great- grandparents Isabella & Ferdinand, he vowed to build a burial site closer to home. San Lorenzo was a Spanish martyr roasted on a grill/gridiron (El Escorial is shaped like this) in Rome; his feast day was being celebrated when Philip II defeated France in the Battle of San Quentin on August 10, 1557.
Crypt facts & figures the body of every king and queen (only those who became mothers of kings!) since Carlos I (HRE Charles V), in 1558, except three -- Felipe V, Ferdinand VI, and Amadeus of Savoy – are buried here. Current King, Juan Carlos I, will not be buried in this octagonal room – no more space! The rulers' bodies lie in 26 marble and bronze sarcophagi that line the walls (three of which are empty) – waiting to be filled by Juan Carlos’ grandparents and father. royal sons and daughters who never ruled (and died before age 7) lie nearby in the Panteón de los Infantes (a single circular cake-like tomb made of Carrara marble). Rotting Room!: place for corpses to turn to skeletons to fit inside the golden caskets (approx. 1 yard long). ARE THEY STILL ROTTING?: Juan Carlos’ grandfather died in 1941, and his grandmother died in 1964!
Wars of Philip II 1571: defeated Turks at Battle of Lepanto 1560s: battled Protestant rebels (rebelling against the Inquisition) in the Netherlands…1581: Dutch Netherlands split from the Catholic “south” 1580s: Queen Elizabeth I seen as chief Protestant enemy --- 1588: Philip sent his Armada to fight the English Sea Dogs in the English Channel Sir Francis Drake – called “Master Thief of the Unknown World” English defeated the Spanish Armada; Elizabeth’s greatest victory
Philip II vs. Elizabeth I July 29, 1588 Spanish Armada took 130 ships (converted merchant ships; broad & heavy) and 30,000+ men with the mission to land near Dover, England. English had approx. 200 ships English set fire to empty ships and sent them into the Spanish fleet; this disrupted a planned meeting with the Duke of Parma’s army in SE England. English blocked southern end of the Channel/Spanish had to retreat home NORTH over England, Scotland & Ireland! Strong storms “Protestant Winds” led to the loss of ½ of Spanish Armada and ¾ of men
Golden Age of Spain 1550-1650 Philip II – patron of the arts Art (mannerism): El Greco, Diego Velazquez (famous court painter) Writing: Lope de Vega, Miguel de Cervantes
El Greco (1541-1614) Domenikos Theotokopoulos Born in Crete Lived in Toledo Spent time in Venice and Rome Studied Titian, Michelangelo & Raphael Emotional intensity, distorted images, religious intensity in his work
Las Meninas/Maids of Honor of the Royal Children (The Family of Philip IV): Diego Velasquez
France Under Louis XIV 1600s: France replaced Spain as most powerful European country 1560s-1590: religious wars btw. Huguenots and Catholics Aug. 24, 1572: St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre --- 3,000 Protestants massacred 1 week after the royal wedding day of Henry of Navarre (IV) (Protestant) to Marguerite de Valois, daughter of Catherine de Medici & Henry II of France (Catholic) Approx. 70,000 massacred over many months
Catherine de Medici (1519-1589) Married Henry II (France) at age 14 (he was also 14) Uncle was Pope Clement VII, who refused to annul Henry VIII’s marriage Competed with Henry’s mistress, Diane de Poitiers Mastered the art of lying & assassination by poisoning Was a woman of fashion & luxury (high heels and corsets & lavish banquets) May have orchestrated the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre due to the fact that her son, King Charles IX, was getting “too close” to Huguenot Admiral Gaspard de Coligny Married her oldest daughter, Elizabeth, to Philip II of Spain
King Henry II (1547-1559) Produced 10 children with Catherine de Medici Son Charles IX ruled during St. B.D. Massacre Daughter Marguerite married Charles IV Died in a jousting match when a sliver from a shattered wooden lance penetrated the closed visor, his right eye and into his brain He died 11 days later. Royal surgeon Ambroise Paré & Andreas Vesalius tried to save him. Died on July 10 th ; buried in Saint Denis Basilica.
Nostradamus’ Prediction The Lion shall overcome the old on the field of war in a single combat (duelle); He will pierce his eyes in a cage of gold This is the first of two lappings, then he dies a cruel death. Catherine de Medici had the Comte de Montgomery (jousting opponent) beheaded, as well as 4 criminals, who had lances thrust into their eyes at the same angle as Henry’s wound – to help the doctors find a cure.
Henry IV (1553-1610) Huguenot prince…inherited French throne in 1589 Annulled his marriage to Marguerite (Henry II’s daughter); married Marie de Medici --- had 6 children Baptized a Catholic, but raised a Protestant by his mother Converted back to Catholicism… “Paris is well worth a mass.” Edict of Nantes (1598): granted protestants toleration in a catholic country Stabbed to death by a fanatical Catholic assassin, François Ravaillac, in 1610 9 yr. old son, Louis XIII, took the throne
Louis XIII (1610-1643) Oldest son of Henry IV and Marie de Medici Maria served as regent until Louis was 13 yrs. of age. Married Anne of Austria at age 14 Appointed Cardinal Richelieu as his chief minister Richelieu’s goal was to destroy power of the Huguenots & nobles and strengthen the monarchy. Richelieu’s successor Cardinal Mazarin served as chief minister to Louis XIV, who inherited the throne in 1643 at the age of 5. Louis XIII may have died of tuberculosis.
Louis XIV (1643-1715) “The Sun King” (1661) Mazarin died & Louis took power of the throne himself (age 23) & ruled for 72 years…longest reign of any European monarch Regents were Cardinal Mazarin and Anne of Austria Believed in divine right, took the sun as his symbol of absolute power, and motto was “I am the state.” Never called a meeting of the Estates General; royal power went unchecked! Strengthened French army, appointed intendants to carry out policy Army (300,000 +) became one of the strongest in Europe
Louis XIV continued Appointed Jean Baptiste Colbert as his finance minister Mercantilist who boosted French economy Put high tariffs on imported goods Encouraged overseas colonies and closely regulated trade with the colonies in N. America: St. Louis, Missouri; Mobile, Alabama; Biloxi, Mississippi; Baton Rouge & New Orleans, Louisiana; Quebec, Montreal Died on September 1, 1715 of gangrene poisoning (cause unknown)
Louis XIV continued Louis XIV also revoked the Edict of Nantes (1685); led to over 100,000 Huguenots fleeing France; their loss was as serious a blow to France as the loss of Jews & Muslims from Spain. Louis died in 1715; 5 year-old great grandson Louis XV inherited the throne; his only surviving son, Louis, died in 1711. *He and Marie-Therese had 5 children die in infancy. Louis XV died of smallpox at Versailles. His great-great grandson Louis XVI took the throne and married Marie Antoinette. They were both beheaded in the guillotine (1793) during the French Revolution.
Marie-Therese Wife of Louis XIV; married in 1660 Daughter of King Philip IV of Spain; granddaughter of Henry IV & Marie de Medici She was short, dwarflike & had the Hapsburg lip (extended lower jaw; genetic defect) He had at least 3 mistresses and many illegitimate children Died on July 30, 1683 (poisoning or cancer???)
NameBirthDeath Louis de France, Fils de France, le Grand Dauphin 1 November 1661 14 April14 April 17111711 Anne-Élisabeth de France, Fille de FranceNovember 18November 18, 16621662 December 30December 30, 16621662 Marie-Anne de France, Fille de FranceNovember 16November 16, 16641664 December 26December 26, 16641664 Marie-Thérèse de FranceMarie-Thérèse de France, Fille de France, la Petite Madame January 2January 2, 1667 1667 March 1March 1, 1672 1672 Philippe-Charles de France, Fils de France, duc d'Anjou August 5August 5, 1668 1668 July 10July 10, 16711671 Louis-François de France, Fils de France, duc d'Anjou June 14June 14, 16721672November 4November 4, 1672 1672
Versailles and Royal Power Built palace at Versailles (1668-1710): 4 building campaigns 1 st court officially held on May 6, 1682 Had 1,300 rooms, housed 10,000 people, had magnificent halls (Hall of Mirrors), salons, mirrors, chandeliers, paintings, statues, gardens, fountains (1,500) and flowers (tulips) Perfected elaborate ceremonies such as the levee or rising, which kept the nobility occupied Patron of the arts: painting, music, ballet, architecture, academies of arts and sciences
War of Spanish Succession (1700-1713) King Charles II of Spain died w/o an heir and named Philip V, grandson of Louis XIV, King of Spain. Louis’ mother (Anne of Austria) & his wife/cousin (Marie- Therese) were both Spanish princesses. HRE Leopold I also claimed the throne as an Austrian Hapsburg. Charles II was his first cousin. Louis XIV wanted to unite France and Spain as one. English & Dutch led the fight to prevent a shift in the balance of power in Europe. Treaty of Utrecht---Philip V remained King of Spain (although a French Bourbon), BUT France agreed never to unite the two crowns