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Fabrication Laboratory Spring 2012. Handout Handout J.D. Plummer, M.D. Deal, and P.B. Griffin, Silicon VLSI Technology: Fundamentals, Practice and Modeling,

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Presentation on theme: "Fabrication Laboratory Spring 2012. Handout Handout J.D. Plummer, M.D. Deal, and P.B. Griffin, Silicon VLSI Technology: Fundamentals, Practice and Modeling,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fabrication Laboratory Spring 2012

2 Handout Handout J.D. Plummer, M.D. Deal, and P.B. Griffin, Silicon VLSI Technology: Fundamentals, Practice and Modeling, Prentice-Hall, 1st Ed., J.D. Plummer, M.D. Deal, and P.B. Griffin, Silicon VLSI Technology: Fundamentals, Practice and Modeling, Prentice-Hall, 1st Ed., H. Xiao, Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Prentice Hall, 1st Ed., H. Xiao, Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Prentice Hall, 1st Ed., S.K. Ghandhi, VLSI Fabrication Principles: Silicon and Gallium Arsenide, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd Ed., S.K. Ghandhi, VLSI Fabrication Principles: Silicon and Gallium Arsenide, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd Ed., P. van Zant, Microchip Fabrication, McGraw-Hill, 4th Ed., P. van Zant, Microchip Fabrication, McGraw-Hill, 4th Ed., S.M. Sze, VLSI Fabrication, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Ed., S.M. Sze, VLSI Fabrication, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Ed., Y. Tsividis, Operation and Modeling of The MOS Transistor, Oxford University Press, 2nd Ed., Y. Tsividis, Operation and Modeling of The MOS Transistor, Oxford University Press, 2nd Ed., ReferencesReferences 2

3 40% final exam 40% final exam 40% experimental expertise 40% experimental expertise 20% project 20% project GradingGrading 3

4 Introduction to Device Fabrication Farshid Karbassian

5 OutlineOutline Historical Overview Historical Overview Wafer Manufacturing Wafer Manufacturing Cleanroom Technology Cleanroom Technology Fabrication Process Fabrication Process  Thermal Oxidation  Deposition  Photolithography  Etching 5

6 6

7 First Transistor Historical Overview Bell Laboratory

8 Nobel Prize in Physics (1956) “for their research on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect” Historical Overview 8

9 Invention of Integrated Circuits Texas Instruments-1958 Historical Overview Fairchild

10 Nobel Prize in Physics (2000) “For basic work on information and communication technology” “for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed and optoelectronics” high-speed and optoelectronics” “for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit” the integrated circuit” Historical Overview 10

11 Today's Integrated Circuits Historical Overview 11

12 Moore’s Law The number of transistors on a chip The number of transistors on a chip doubles roughly every two years. Historical Overview 12

13 ScalingScaling Historical Overview 13

14 A. Javey, et al. Nature (2003) H. Sellier, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett (2006) V. Iyengar, et al. IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2007) Tri-gate Transistor Tri-gate Transistor FinFET FinFET CNTFET CNTFET New Structures Historical Overview 14

15 Wafer Manufacturing 15

16 Why Silicon? About 25.7% of the earth’s crust is silicon. About 25.7% of the earth’s crust is silicon. Si raw material can be found anywhere in large quantities. Si raw material can be found anywhere in large quantities. Crystallization of Si is much cheaper than any other semiconductor material. Crystallization of Si is much cheaper than any other semiconductor material. SiO 2 SiO 2 Wafer Manufacturing 16

17 Crystal Pulling Czochralski Crystal Growth Czochralski Crystal Growth Wafer Manufacturing 17

18 SlicingSlicing Wafer Manufacturing 18

19 Lapping, Etching and Polishing To remove damages caused by slicing several steps are performed so that wafers with one mirror finish will obtain. To remove damages caused by slicing several steps are performed so that wafers with one mirror finish will obtain. Wafer Manufacturing 19

20 Cleanrooms,Wafer cleaning & Gettering Modern IC factories employ a three tiered approach to control unwanted impurities: Modern IC factories employ a three tiered approach to control unwanted impurities: Clean factories Clean factories Wafer cleaning Wafer cleaning Gettering Gettering 20

21 CleanroomsCleanrooms Fab process is done Fab process is done in an environment called cleanroom. A cleanroom is A cleanroom is identified by a class number which shows how clean it is. 21

22 RCA I RCA I NH 4 OH:H 2 O 2 :H 2 O 1:1:5 – 1:2:7 (70-80 O C) DI water DI water RCA II RCA II HCl:H 2 O 2 :H 2 O 1:1:6 – 1:2:8 (70-80 O C) DI water DI water RCA cleaning 22

23 Thermal Oxidation At high temperature O 2 molecules diffuse across an existing oxide layer to reach the Si/SiO 2 interface. At high temperature O 2 molecules diffuse across an existing oxide layer to reach the Si/SiO 2 interface. 23 Oxidation is also used for device isolation. Oxidation is also used for device isolation.

24 Deposition is a necessary step in the fabrication technology. Deposition is a necessary step in the fabrication technology. DepositionDeposition 24 p-type Si substrate SiO 2 gate material (polysilicon)

25 PatterningPatterning photoresist p-type Si substrate SiO 2 metal polysilicon 25

26 PhotolithographyPhotolithography 8) Develop inspect 5) Post-exposure bake bake 6) Develop 7) Hard bake UV Light Mask 4) Alignment and Exposure and Exposure Resist 2) Spin coat 3) Soft bake 1) Vapor prime HMD S 26

27 DiffusionDiffusion 27

28 Finished chips 28

29 Samples are ready Samples are ready to dice now. After dicing, gold wires After dicing, gold wires are bonded to the chips, and then they are packed. DicingDicing 29

30 BondingBonding 30

31 BondingBonding 31

32 Types of packages: Types of packages: PackagingPackaging 32

33 Process Simulation Process Simulation Device Simulation Device Simulation SimulationSimulation 33

34 34

35 Any questions?


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