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Fabrication Laboratory

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Presentation on theme: "Fabrication Laboratory"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fabrication Laboratory
Spring 2012

2 References Handout J.D. Plummer, M.D. Deal, and P.B. Griffin, Silicon VLSI Technology: Fundamentals, Practice and Modeling, Prentice-Hall, 1st Ed., 2001. H. Xiao, Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Prentice Hall, 1st Ed., 2001. S.K. Ghandhi, VLSI Fabrication Principles: Silicon and Gallium Arsenide, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd Ed., 1994. P. van Zant, Microchip Fabrication, McGraw-Hill, 4th Ed., 2000. S.M. Sze, VLSI Fabrication, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Ed., 1988. Y. Tsividis, Operation and Modeling of The MOS Transistor, Oxford University Press, 2nd Ed., 1999.

3 Grading 40% final exam 40% experimental expertise 20% project

4 Introduction to Device Fabrication
Farshid Karbassian

5 Outline Historical Overview Wafer Manufacturing Cleanroom Technology
Fabrication Process Thermal Oxidation Deposition Photolithography Etching

6 6

7 Historical Overview First Transistor Bell Laboratory-1947

8 Nobel Prize in Physics (1956)
Historical Overview Nobel Prize in Physics (1956) “for their research on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect”

9 Invention of Integrated Circuits
Historical Overview Invention of Integrated Circuits Texas Instruments-1958 Fairchild-1959

10 Nobel Prize in Physics (2000)
Historical Overview Nobel Prize in Physics (2000) “For basic work on information and communication technology” “for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed and optoelectronics” “for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit”

11 Today's Integrated Circuits
Historical Overview Today's Integrated Circuits

12 Moore’s Law The number of transistors on a chip
Historical Overview Moore’s Law The number of transistors on a chip doubles roughly every two years.

13 Historical Overview Scaling

14 New Structures Tri-gate Transistor FinFET CNTFET Historical Overview
V. Iyengar, et al. IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2007) Tri-gate Transistor FinFET CNTFET A. Javey, et al. Nature (2003) H. Sellier, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett (2006)

15 Wafer Manufacturing

16 Why Silicon? About 25.7% of the earth’s crust is silicon.
Wafer Manufacturing Why Silicon? About 25.7% of the earth’s crust is silicon. Si raw material can be found anywhere in large quantities. Crystallization of Si is much cheaper than any other semiconductor material. SiO2

17 Wafer Manufacturing Crystal Pulling Czochralski Crystal Growth

18 Wafer Manufacturing Slicing

19 Lapping, Etching and Polishing
Wafer Manufacturing Lapping, Etching and Polishing To remove damages caused by slicing several steps are performed so that wafers with one mirror finish will obtain.

20 Cleanrooms,Wafer cleaning & Gettering
Modern IC factories employ a three tiered approach to control unwanted impurities: Clean factories Wafer cleaning Gettering

21 Cleanrooms Fab process is done in an environment called cleanroom.
A cleanroom is identified by a class number which shows how clean it is.

22 RCA cleaning RCA I NH4OH:H2O2:H2O 1:1:5 – 1:2:7 (70-80OC) DI water
RCA II HCl:H2O2:H2O 1:1:6 – 1:2:8 (70-80OC)

23 Thermal Oxidation At high temperature O2 molecules diffuse across an existing oxide layer to reach the Si/SiO2 interface. Oxidation is also used for device isolation.

24 Deposition Deposition is a necessary step in the fabrication technology. p-type Si substrate SiO2 gate material (polysilicon)

25 Patterning p-type Si substrate SiO2 polysilicon metal photoresist

26 Photolithography 1) Vapor prime 2) Spin coat 3) Soft bake 4) Alignment
UV Light HMDS Resist Mask 1) Vapor prime 2) Spin coat 3) Soft bake 4) Alignment and Exposure 6) Develop 8) Develop inspect 5) Post-exposure bake 7) Hard bake

27 Diffusion

28 Finished chips

29 Dicing Samples are ready to dice now. After dicing, gold wires
are bonded to the chips, and then they are packed.

30 Bonding

31 Bonding

32 Packaging Types of packages:

33 Simulation Process Simulation Device Simulation

34 34

35 Any questions?

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