Presentation on theme: "John 18-19 The Passion Narrative. Broad Outline of Fourth Gospel Ch. 1Introduction: Prologue and Witness of John Ch. 2-12Jesus Before the World ("Book."— Presentation transcript:
John 18-19 The Passion Narrative
Broad Outline of Fourth Gospel Ch. 1Introduction: Prologue and Witness of John Ch. 2-12Jesus Before the World ("Book of Signs") Theme: Through signs and discourses, Jesus reveals himself as the Son of God, sent to save the world, but is rejected by the world. Ch. 2-4Images of New Salvation Ch. 5-10Growing hostility Ch. 11-12Final rejection Ch. 13-20 Jesus Before the Disciples ("Book of Passion/Glory") Theme: Having been rejected by the world, Jesus prepares the disciples for his departure to the Father. Ch. 13Last Supper Ch. 14-16Farewell Discourse Ch. 17Jesus’ “High Priestly” Prayer Ch. 18-19Passion Narrative Ch. 20Resurrection Ch. 21Appendix: Appearance in Galilee
John 18-19 The Passion Narrative “No one takes my life from me, but I lay it down of my own accord” (10:18). John’s Passion Narrative depicts Jesus in total control. Jesus in total controlJesus in total control 1.Jesus’ Arrest in the Garden (18:1-11) 2.Interrogation by Annas and Peter’s Denial (18:12-27) 3.The Trial before Pontius Pilate (18:28-19:16) 4.Crucifixion and Burial (19:16-42)
Jesus’ Arrest in the Garden (18:1-11) 1.John’s setting (v. 1-3). a.A “garden” across Kidron valley – not called “Gethsemane.” b.Judas brings “cohort” (600-1000) of soldiers plus temple police.
Jesus’ Arrest in the Garden (18:1-11) 2.Jesus takes the initiative (v. 4-6). a.No kiss on the cheek from Judas. b.Identifies himself with an absolute “I am.” c.Reaction of soldiers is typical of theophany scenes.
Jesus’ Arrest in the Garden (18:1-11) 3.Jesus protects the disciples (v. 7-9). 4.Peter defends Jesus by drawing a sword (v. 10-11). a.Only FG names Peter and high priest’s slave (Malchus). b.Jesus was “betrayed twice” in the garden. c.Jesus rejects the way of violence/retaliation; vows to “drink the cup the Father has given me” (cf. Mk. 14:36).
1.Annas interrogates Jesus (v. 19-24). a.Former high priest (6-15 AD); father-in-law of Caiaphas. b.Interrogates Jesus about “his disciples and his teaching.” c.Jesus is rebuked and slapped for insolence; protests the injustice. d.Annas sends him to Caiaphas, current high priest (18-36 AD). e.No trial before Caiaphas and Sanhedrin is recorded (as in Mk. 14). Interrogation by Annas and Peter’s Denial (18:12-27) Modern church built on traditional site of Caiaphas’ house. Steps may be first-century.
2.Peter’s denial (v. 15-18, 25-27) frames Jesus’ interrogation. a.The “other disciple” who gets Peter into courtyard of high priest may be “Beloved Disciple.” b.Standing by charcoal fire (v. 18), Peter denies Jesus three times. c.Fulfills Jesus’ prediction (13:38) and prepares for Peter’s rehabilitation, beside another charcoal fire (21:9, 15-17). Interrogation by Annas and Peter’s Denial (18:12-27) Modern church built on traditional site of Caiaphas’ house. Steps may be first-century.
1.Setting and structure. a.Rome reserved the right to execute. b.Pontius Pilate (procurator/prefect 26-36 AD) in Jerusalem for feast. c.Early Friday morning, chief priests bring Jesus to “praetorium” (procurator’s residence/headquarters). d.“The Jews” refuse to enter praetorium to avoid defilement so they could eat Passover on Friday evening (v. 28). e.FG depicts Pilate engaged in “shuttle diplomacy” between Jesus inside the praetorium and “the Jews” outside. 2.Three key themes in John’s version of the trial: a.Emphasis on Pilate’s conviction of Jesus’ innocence. 1)Three times he pronounces Jesus innocent: “I find no case against him” (18:38; 19:4, 6). 2)Three times he tries to release him: a)Custom of releasing prisoner at Passover – but they want Barabbas (18:39-40). b)Has him flogged and mocked – but they shout for crucifixion (19:5-6). c)Tries again – but they shout, “If you release this man, you are no friend of the emperor” (19:12). 3)Pilate’s reluctance is historically questionable. (Who killed Jesus?) The Trial before Pontius Pilate (18:28-19:16)
2.Three key themes in John’s version of the trial (cont.): b.Emphasis on Jesus’ kingship. 1)Whole Passion Narrative presents Jesus as “King;” theme is concentrated here. 2)“King” is used 12 times; “kingdom/kingship” 2 times. 3)Interrogation revolves around question, “Are you the King of the Jews?” (18:33). 4)“My kingdom is not from this world” – not based on worldly values / methods but on “truth” (v. 36-38). (Pilate: “What is truth?”) 5)In the end, “the Jews” embrace Caesar as their only king (19:15). c.Emphasis on Passover. 1)“The Jews” refuse to enter praetorium to keep pure for Passover (18:28). 2)Barabbas is released for Passover custom (18:39). 3)Jesus is condemned at noon on Day of Preparation; crucified as Passover lambs were being slaughtered in Temple (19:14). a)John’s chronology depicts Jesus as true Passover Lamb. b)Irony: “the Jews” avoid defilement in order to eat Passover, yet reject Jesus, the true Pascal Lamb. The Trial before Pontius Pilate (18:28-19:16)
1.Jesus carries his own Cross to Golgotha (v. 16-18). a.Differs from Synoptics, where Simon of Cyrene carries it (Mk. 15:21). 1)Supports FG’s theme of Jesus being in total control. 2)May be anti-docetic (some Gnostics claimed that Simon was crucified instead of Jesus). b.Crucifixion itself is described with great economy of detail (cf. Mel Gibson). Crucifixion and Burial (19:16-42) “Gordon’s Calvary”
2.Pilate’s inscription was customary practice (v. 19-22). a.“Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews” (INRI). b.Intended to mock, but truer than he realized. c.“Three languages” expresses universalism of gospel. d.Jesus dies as a King – enthroned on a Cross – by which he conquers the world. 3.Soldiers dividing up Jesus’ clothing was customary (v. 23-24). a.Fulfills Scripture (Ps. 22:18). b.Only FG has casting lots for “seamless tunic” (unity of church). Crucifixion and Burial (19:16-42)
4.Three sayings from the Cross: a.“Woman, behold your son…Behold your mother” (v. 25-27). 1)Nucleus of a new community of believers. 2)Christian community is a “family” of “children of God” bound together by faith rather than blood. b.“I thirst” (v. 28-29). 1)Fulfills Scripture – “they gave me vinegar to drink” (Ps. 69:21). 2)Hyssop was used at Passover to sprinkle blood on doorposts (Ex. 12:22). 3)Thirsting may be anti-docetic motif. c.“It is finished” (v. 30). 1)Mission from the Father is accomplished. 2)“Hands over” his own spirit. Crucifixion and Burial (19:16-42)
5.Breaking of the legs and the spear-thrust (v. 31-37). a.Intended to hasten death before start of Sabbath at sundown. b.Jesus’ legs not broken, as Passover lamb’s were not (Ex. 12:46). c.Spear-thrust yielding “blood and water”: 1)Confirms reality of Jesus’ death and fulfills Scripture (Zech. 12:10). 2)“He who saw it” may be “Beloved Disciple.” 3)Anti-docetic: humans have blood and water; gods have no blood. 4)Some see symbolism of baptism and Lord’s Supper. Crucifixion and Burial (19:16-42)
6.The burial (v. 38-42). a.Joseph of Arimathea, described as “secret disciple,” gets custody of body. b.Nicodemus provides lavish burial spices (100 pounds of myrrh and aloes). c.Together they anoint Jesus’ body and give him a burial fit for a king. d.Buried in a “new tomb” located in a “garden.” Crucifixion and Burial (19:16-42) “Garden Tomb”