3Section 2 - Egyptian Culture Main IdeaThe ancient Egyptians are famous for their religion, their burial practices, and their advances in art, writing and science.Reading FocusWhat were the main principles of Egyptian religion?Why did Egyptians practice mummification and burial?What was daily life like in ancient Egypt?What advances did Egyptians make in art, writing and science?
4Section 2 - Egyptian Culture Imhotep lived during the Third Dynasty and became the vizier of King Zoser (Djoser) and high priest of the sun god Re. Imhotep was a scribe, chief lector, priest, architect, astronomer and magician (medicine and magic were used together.) For 3000 years he was worshipped as a god in Greece and Rome. One of his best-known sayings is: "Eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we shall die.”
5I. Egyptian ReligionEgyptians worshipped hundreds of gods; believed gods controlled all natural eventsThe council of Ra with the nine members: Osiris, Nut, Geb, Shu, Atum, Tefnut, Nephyhys, Isis and Set. Sometimes Horus and Thoth were added.
6A. Chief gods and goddesses Sun god: Re in Old Kingdom, later linked to sky god, Amon, and became Amon-ReIn one of his many forms, Ra has the head of a falcon and the sun-disk of Wadjet resting on his head.
7A. Chief gods and goddesses Anubis: Protector of the deadThis scene portrays the weighing of the royal scribe’s heart against a feather representing truth
8A. Chief gods and goddesses Osiris - king of the underworld, god of the dead
9Egyptian goddess Isis, tomb painting, ca. 1360 BC A. Chief gods and goddessesIsis - wife and sister of Osiris, mother of HorusEgyptian goddess Isis, tomb painting, ca BC
10A. Chief gods and goddesses Horus - god of the sky, protector of the pharaohs
11A. Chief gods and goddesses Seth – god of chaos, storms, the desert; brother of Osiris and Isis
12B. Temples and Religious Practices Temples built to honor and provide homes for godsHall of Columns at Karnak
13B. Temples and Religious Practices Obelisks - made from a single piece of stone, carved with designsUnfinished obelisk at AswanObelisk of Ramses II, Luxor Temple
14B. Temples and Religious Practices Priests performed rituals to keep the gods alive
15B. Temples and Religious Practices Commoners only worshiped gods at annual festivals
16II. Mummification and Burial Belief in afterlife led to rituals for death and burial
17II. Mummification and Burial When physical body died, it released ka; ka vanished if body decomposedKa is the life force or spiritual double of the person. Ba is represented as a human-headed bird that leaves the body when a person dies. The face of Ba was the exact likeness of that of the deceased person.
18II. Mummification and Burial Mummification - process to prevent breakdown of body; only for royalty at first
19II. Mummification and Burial Internal organs (except heart) removed; body wrapped with linen stripsThe liver, the lungs, the stomach, and the intestines were each placed in a separate Canopic Jars
20II. Mummification and Burial Dead buried with possessions needed for afterlifeTut’s Tomb
21II. Mummification and Burial Tombs painted with scenes from person’s life; Book of the Dead guided ka on journey to afterlifeBook of the Dead from Thebes Late 18th Dynasty, BC
23A. Social StructureHighly stratified society – pharaoh, religious and military leaders at top
24A. Social StructureArtisans and merchants next; 90% were peasant farmers or laborers
25B. Home and Family LifeLifestyle varied between classes; pharaohs had several wives, often married sisters
26B. Home and Family LifeWomen equal to husbands; children learned from parentsGranite sphinx of Hatshepsut,15th Century BC
27B. Home and Family LifeEgyptians concerned with appearance; free time occupied with sports and gamesThe large collection of grooming items – combs, shaving tools and different kinds of oils that were used as make-up – found in Egyptian tombs and coffins bears testament to their interest in beauty. Wigs were also very popular and could be found in a variety of colors such as blue, green, yellow and gold. Moreover, in spite of their dark skin, many Egyptian women liked to use gold and yellow wigs to beautify themselves.
28IV. Art, Writing, and Science King Tutankhamen and Queen Ankhesenamun (fromTut’s throne)
29Murals in the Tomb of Sennedjem A. Egyptian ArtPaintings were distinctive, detailed and colorful; variety of subjectsMurals in the Tomb of Sennedjem
30A. Egyptian ArtStatues large and imposing - most depicted gods or pharaohsMonuments of Pharaoh Amenhotep III guard the entrance of a long-vanished temple
32B. Egyptian WritingTwo other systems: hieratic for religious texts; demotic for legal and literary writingsDemotic script (meaning 'writing for documents') developed by the year 660 BC and was used until about 425 AD
33B. Egyptian WritingUsed the papyrus plant to make paper-like sheets
34Egypt is important for papyrus in two respects Egypt is important for papyrus in two respects. First, papyrus plants grew almost exclusively in the region of the Nile delta. Secondly, the dry climate of Egypt made it possible for papyri to endure, in many cases, for over 2 millennia. Paper is made from the papyrus plant by separating it with a needle point into very thin strips as broad as possible. The choice quality comes from the center, and thence in the order of slicing. The first use of papyrus paper is believed to have been 4000 BC.
35B. Egyptian WritingDiscovery of Rosetta Stone unlocked Egyptian writing: writing was the same text in hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek
36C. Math and ScienceHad thorough understanding of arithmetic, geometry, and engineering principles
37C. Math and ScienceGreat scientific advances in medicine; became masters of human anatomy