Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3: Nile Civilizations. Section 2 - Egyptian Culture."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3: Nile Civilizations
Section 2 - Egyptian Culture
Main Idea The ancient Egyptians are famous for their religion, their burial practices, and their advances in art, writing and science. Reading Focus What were the main principles of Egyptian religion? Why did Egyptians practice mummification and burial? What was daily life like in ancient Egypt? What advances did Egyptians make in art, writing and science?
Section 2 - Egyptian Culture Imhotep lived during the Third Dynasty and became the vizier of King Zoser (Djoser) and high priest of the sun god Re. Imhotep was a scribe, chief lector, priest, architect, astronomer and magician (medicine and magic were used together.) For 3000 years he was worshipped as a god in Greece and Rome. One of his best-known sayings is: "Eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we shall die.”
I. Egyptian Religion Egyptians worshipped hundreds of gods; believed gods controlled all natural events The council of Ra with the nine members: Osiris, Nut, Geb, Shu, Atum, Tefnut, Nephyhys, Isis and Set. Sometimes Horus and Thoth were added.
A. Chief gods and goddesses Sun god: Re in Old Kingdom, later linked to sky god, Amon, and became Amon-Re In one of his many forms, Ra has the head of a falcon and the sun- disk of Wadjet resting on his head.
A. Chief gods and goddesses Anubis: Protector of the dead This scene portrays the weighing of the royal scribe’s heart against a feather representing truth
Osiris - king of the underworld, god of the dead A. Chief gods and goddesses
Isis - wife and sister of Osiris, mother of Horus A. Chief gods and goddesses Egyptian goddess Isis, tomb painting, ca BC
Horus - god of the sky, protector of the pharaohs A. Chief gods and goddesses
Seth – god of chaos, storms, the desert; brother of Osiris and Isis A. Chief gods and goddesses
B. Temples and Religious Practices Temples built to honor and provide homes for gods Hall of Columns at Karnak
B. Temples and Religious Practices Obelisks - made from a single piece of stone, carved with designs Unfinished obelisk at Aswan Obelisk of Ramses II, Luxor Temple
B. Temples and Religious Practices Priests performed rituals to keep the gods alive
B. Temples and Religious Practices Commoners only worshiped gods at annual festivals
II. Mummification and Burial Belief in afterlife led to rituals for death and burial
II. Mummification and Burial When physical body died, it released ka; ka vanished if body decomposed Ka is the life force or spiritual double of the person. Ba is represented as a human-headed bird that leaves the body when a person dies. The face of Ba was the exact likeness of that of the deceased person.
II. Mummification and Burial Mummification - process to prevent breakdown of body; only for royalty at first
II. Mummification and Burial Internal organs (except heart) removed; body wrapped with linen strips The liver, the lungs, the stomach, and the intestines were each placed in a separate Canopic Jars
II. Mummification and Burial Dead buried with possessions needed for afterlife Tut’s Tomb
II. Mummification and Burial Tombs painted with scenes from person’s life; Book of the Dead guided ka on journey to afterlife Book of the Dead from Thebes Late 18th Dynasty, BC
III. Daily Life
A. Social Structure Highly stratified society – pharaoh, religious and military leaders at top
A. Social Structure Artisans and merchants next; 90% were peasant farmers or laborers
B. Home and Family Life Lifestyle varied between classes; pharaohs had several wives, often married sisters
B. Home and Family Life Women equal to husbands; children learned from parents Granite sphinx of Hatshepsut, 15 th Century BC
B. Home and Family Life Egyptians concerned with appearance; free time occupied with sports and games The large collection of grooming items – combs, shaving tools and different kinds of oils that were used as make-up – found in Egyptian tombs and coffins bears testament to their interest in beauty. Wigs were also very popular and could be found in a variety of colors such as blue, green, yellow and gold. Moreover, in spite of their dark skin, many Egyptian women liked to use gold and yellow wigs to beautify themselves.
IV. Art, Writing, and Science King Tutankhamen and Queen Ankhesenamun (fromTut’s throne)
A. Egyptian Art Paintings were distinctive, detailed and colorful; variety of subjects Murals in the Tomb of Sennedjem
A. Egyptian Art Statues large and imposing - most depicted gods or pharaohs Monuments of Pharaoh Amenhotep III guard the entrance of a long-vanished temple
B. Egyptian Writing Hieroglyphics - main writing system; picture symbols represented objects
B. Egyptian Writing Two other systems: hieratic for religious texts; demotic for legal and literary writings Demotic script (meaning 'writing for documents') developed by the year 660 BC and was used until about 425 AD
B. Egyptian Writing Used the papyrus plant to make paper-like sheets
Egypt is important for papyrus in two respects. First, papyrus plants grew almost exclusively in the region of the Nile delta. Secondly, the dry climate of Egypt made it possible for papyri to endure, in many cases, for over 2 millennia. Paper is made from the papyrus plant by separating it with a needle point into very thin strips as broad as possible. The choice quality comes from the center, and thence in the order of slicing. The first use of papyrus paper is believed to have been 4000 BC.
B. Egyptian Writing Discovery of Rosetta Stone unlocked Egyptian writing: writing was the same text in hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek
C. Math and Science Had thorough understanding of arithmetic, geometry, and engineering principles
C. Math and Science Great scientific advances in medicine; became masters of human anatomy