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After Death. Definition of Death UNIFORM DETERMINATION OF DEATH ACT Irreversible cessation of circulation of blood in the body Irreversible cessation.

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Presentation on theme: "After Death. Definition of Death UNIFORM DETERMINATION OF DEATH ACT Irreversible cessation of circulation of blood in the body Irreversible cessation."— Presentation transcript:

1 After Death

2 Definition of Death UNIFORM DETERMINATION OF DEATH ACT Irreversible cessation of circulation of blood in the body Irreversible cessation of all respiratory functions Irreversible cessation of all function of the entire brain (including the brain stem)

3 Death masks Death Masks show the facial expressions immediately after death. They are used for sculptures, effigies or veneration.

4 Death Mask of Lenin

5 Autopsy Autopsies are mandatory when the death: Is a Homicide Is Unexplained Is Sudden Occurs in any prisoner or child Occurs while hospitalized

6 Before Body Disposal Organ donation – the removal of tissues from a recently deceased body or a living donor. Organs, tissues, stem cells and blood and platelets may be donated. Most people can be donors (HIV positive, cancer active or systemic infection cannot donate).

7 Before Body Disposal (cont) The organs that may be donated are the kidneys, heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, and the intestines. Donated organs must be transplanted within 6-72 hours and cannot be stored. Tissues, stem cells, blood and platelets may be stored for later use.

8 Before Body Disposal (cont) Currently, 99,450 people are on the waiting list for a donation.

9 Body Disposal There are many opinions about the correct way to dispose of a body. These opinions may be influenced by religion, fear, cultural beliefs and taboos. Methods of disposal include: –Burial Eco-Cemetery At sea Sky burial –Cremation –Mummification –Medical Research –Stuffed –Lye –Freeze dried

10 Body Disposal Burial After death, most families use the services of a funeral home. A funeral home, funeral parlor or mortuary, is a business that provides burial and funeral services for the deceased and their families. The funeral home will embalm the body and help with burial arrangements. The word burial comes from the word birgan which means to conceal.

11 The Process of Embalming Embalming is done to delay decomposition and allow time for the funeral. Blood and body fluids are removed and replaced with embalming fluid.

12 Body Disposal Burial Tom M Wages Funeral Services, LLC located in Lawrenceville, Georgia

13 Body Disposal Burial A coffin is the general term for the container in which a corpse is buried. Coffins have been made of clay, stone, papier-mache, turtle shells, baskets, fabrics, and metals. Coffins are sculpted to the body shape.

14 Body Disposal Burial For many years, coffins were a symbol of social status. The poor were buried in a shroud. However, the poor were transported to the cemetery in a slip-coffin. A slip-coffin had a hinged bottom to allow the body to drop into the grave. The coffin was then returned to the church for reuse.

15 Body Disposal Burial Although incorrect, many people use the terms coffin and casket interchangeably. A casket is rectangular and the lid is hinged for viewing.

16 Body Disposal Burial The term cemetery means sleeping chamber. While both are burial grounds, a cemetery and graveyard should not be used interchangeably. A graveyard is next to a place of worship. A cemetery may be located anywhere and is not affiliated with any religion.

17 Body Disposal Burial

18 An eco-cemetery (aka green burial ground or natural burial ground) is a new alternative place for burial. The body is not embalmed and is placed in a biodegradable coffin or a shroud. The body is returned to the earth to decompose or recycle naturally. Trees or other natural objects are used to mark the grave.

19 Body Disposal Burial Greensprings Natural Cemetery

20 Body Disposal Burial A burial at sea disposes of human remains into the ocean usually from a ship or boat. In the United States, ashes have to be scattered at least 3 miles from shore and a body must be dropped at least 600 ft deep.

21 Body Disposal Burial Once common in Tibet, a sky burial involves cutting a body into small pieces and placing these pieces on top of a mountain to give “alms to the birds”. It was considered a bad omen if the birds did not eat all of the remains.

22 Body Disposal Cremation Cremation reduces a corpse by burning. This occurs in a crematorium. Temperatures must reach 870-980 °C (1600-1800 °F) to totally disintegrate the body. The “ashes” are placed into a container chosen by the family.

23 Body Disposal Mummification Mummification involves two steps: embalming and wrapping. All organs (except the heart) are removed and placed into canopic jars. The body is covered in natron to remove all fluids.

24 Body Disposal Mummification After 40-70 days, the natron is removed and the body is rubbed with oils. Next, the mummy is wrapped using a specific method. First the head and neck are wrapped with strips of fine linen. Then the fingers and the toes are individually wrapped. The arms and legs are wrapped separately and then tied together. Finally, the body the wrapped and placed into a sarcophagus.

25 Body Disposal Mummification

26 Body Disposal Medical Research Bodies cannot be purchased. The donation must be arranged before death. A medical school or research facility will use the body for teaching purposes or disease studies. Bodies can be rejected and then the family would be responsible for burial.

27 Body Disposal The Body Farm The Body Farm is a research facility that studies human decomposition. There is no cost to the family if they live within 200 miles of Knoxville, Tennessee.

28 Body Disposal Stuffed Jeremy Bentham asked that his body be dissected and the skeleton used to create a stuffed figure that sat in a chair. His bones are covered in his clothes and topped with a wax head.

29 Body Disposal Lye Bodies are dissolved in lye so they may be flushed down a drain. This process occurs in a stainless steel cylinder that is similar to a pressure cooker.

30 Body Disposal Freeze Dried The corpse is frozen to minus 18 degrees Celsius and then submerged in liquid nitrogen. The body becomes very brittle. Vibrations then cause the body to break into organic powder.


32 Body Disposal Choice Many times, the method of body disposal is chosen in order to destroy evidence. For example, buried bodies may be exhumed with a court order and re- autopsied. A cremated body is destroyed and all evidence of foul play is gone.

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