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The Nature of Monte Carlo Mine Burial Prediction P.A. Elmore and M.D. Richardson Marine Geosciences Division Naval Research Laboratory Stennis Space Center, MS

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The Nature of the Problem Mine burial is stochastic Large number of physical influences, some of which are stochastic Initial conditions at deployment uncertain (small changes initially may result in very large differences in the end state). Best possible prediction: probabilities for different states of burial.

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Monte Carlo Approach Use deterministic models of impact and subsequent burial in a Monte Carlo simulation to calculate burial of a large number of mines. Random numbers generator - > probability density for each initial variable. Direct computation of burial over the life of each mine. End result: final states of a large number of mines.

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Monte Carlo Approach (cont.) Results are used to determine probability for different states of burial in a particular region of interest over time. Probabilities are associated with lat/long positions to form maps of mine burial probabilities in operational area. An analyst can then use these maps to plan mine clearance or avoidance (go/no go).

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Monte Carlo – High Level View NAVO DB and model results Mission planning Front end of MC model MC Run(s) End result and analysis

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NAVO Model and DB Input Bathy DBDB-V Waves ST-WAVE Mine Type DB Currents SWAFS Geotechnical DB Fall dynamics Impact Scour Everything Scour Bedform Migration Liquefaction Scour Bedform Migration Everything Model Front End

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Impact Burial Scour Bedform migration Sediment Influx Liquefaction Model Front End DB and model ingest PDF’s (models, historical data, intelligence) Monte Carlo Model Mechanics (one run)

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Turn-based coupling of post-impact processes. Processes “take turns”- operate one at a time cyclically. Period of the cyclic made small relative to mine life so that a continuous coupled process is approximated. Analogy: Card game. Each player is idle at the table until it is their turn to play a card. Model Mechanics (Subsequent Burial Process) Scour Bedform migration Sediment Influx Liquefaction

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Map positions and % burial after scour and sediment transport dynamics have been calculated. Mine Burial Model At last day? Store intermediate result. no Collate intermediate and final results. End of run. yes Model Mechanics (Saving Intermediate and Final Results) Scour Bedform migration Sediment Influx Liquefaction End of time step? yes no

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Some Currently Available Components Impact Burial: Batch 28 IMPACT 28 with Monte Carlo shell Coded in QBASIC and MATLAB Scour: HR Wallingford Equations Validation and “tweaking” against NRL mine data Coded in MATLAB Sand Ridge Migration: Mulhearn model Australian defense research Currently in a technical report, needs coding

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Leveraging MBP Modeling Efforts Process models (Impact and Post-Impact) Form the parts required by holistic models. Q/A of physics and define applicability Holistic models (Expert System, Monte Carlo Sim) Use process models as parts in an overall model Integration, statistics, and end product Car factory analogy: Process models form the car parts (brakes, transmission, etc.). Holistic models are the assembled car.

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The Nature of the Prediction Stochastic problem -> probabilistic prediction. Probabilities for different states of burial Time dependent Risk analysis and planning required afterwards Uncertainties Convergence of a solution Sensitivity of variables to change Accuracy of the impact and subsequent burial models Capabilities/Limitations of databases

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End Goal – Avoid This!

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