3 minerala naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structureMust be able to say “yes”1. must be a solid2. must be a nonliving material3. must have a crystalline structure4. must be formed in nature (not by man)
5 elementspure substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
6 compounda substance made of two or more elements that have been chemically joined or bondedNaCl = Sodium + Chlorine = saltH2O = Hydrogen + Oxygen = water
7 native element a mineral composed of only one element Example: gold and silver
8 General Facts about Minerals Between 2 - 3,000 have been identifiedA few are “native elements” -- made of only one element, such as sulfur, gold. copper, and graphite (carbon)Most are compounds, especially the silicate group (Si, O).Other important groups are oxides, carbonates, and sulfides.
9 Less than a dozen are common in most rocks OlivineAmphibole (group)Magnetite, limonite, and other iron oxidesPyriteQuartzFeldspar (group)Muscovite (white mica)Biotite (black mica)CalcitePyroxene
10 Common uses include: Aluminum--packaging, transport, building Beryllium--gemstones, fluorescent lightsCopper--electric cables, wires, switchesFeldspar--glass and ceramicsIron--buildings, automobiles, magnetsCalcite--toothpaste, construction
11 crystalssolid, geometric forms of minerals produced by a definite repeating pattern of atoms that is resent throughout the mineral
12 silicate mineralsa mineral that contains a combination of silicon, oxygen and one or more metalsmake up more than 90% of Earth’s crustsilicon and oxygen combine with other elements such as aluminum, iron, magnesium and potassium to make up silicate materials
13 Common Silicate Minerals FeldsparKAlSi3O8MicaBiotiteK(Mg, Fe)3AlSi3O10(F, OH)2QuartzSilicon DioxideSiO2
14 nonsilicate mineralsminerals that do not contain a combination of the elements silicon and oxygensome made up of carbon, oxygen, fluorine and sulfurnative elements, oxides, carbonates, sulfates, halides & sulfides
15 Classes of Nonsilicate Minerals Native Elements - composed of only one element.GoldCopper
16 Classes of Nonsilicate Minerals Oxides - form when an element (such as aluminum or iron) combines chemically w/ oxygen.CorundumAl2O3Aluminum oxide
17 Classes of Nonsilicate Minerals Carbonates - contain combinations of carbon and oxygen in their chemical structure.CalciteCaCO3
18 Classes of Nonsilicate Minerals Sulfates - contain sulfur and oxygen, SO4.GypsumCalcium Sulfate DihydrateCaSO4·2H2O
19 Classes of Nonsilicate Minerals Halides - form when:flourine, chlorine, iodine, or brominecombine withsodium, potassium, or calciumFlouriteCalcium FluorideCaF2
20 Classes of Nonsilicate Minerals Sulfides - contain one or more elements (such as lead, iron, or nickel) combined with sulfur.GalenaLead SulfidePbS
22 Minerals are identified by their key characteristics hardnesscrystal shape (form)lustercolorstreakcleavage/fracturedensity (specific gravity)special properties --reaction to acid --fluorescence salty taste magnetism
23 COLORresults from ability to absorb some wavelengths and reflect otherssome minerals have characteristics colorsothers vary due to chemical differences or impurities (atoms mixed inside the main elements)because of factors such as impurities, color is not the best way to identify a mineral
25 LUSTER Describes how light reflects off the surface “shiny” = metallic luster“dull” = submetallic or nonmetallic luster
26 STREAKColor of the powder when rubbed on a “streak plate” (unglazed porcelain)can be found by rubbing the mineral against a piece of unglazed porcelainpowdered color is not always the same color of the mineral sample
27 Streak Plate = a piece of unglazed porcelain used to test the streak of minerals
38 fracture in obsidianfracture = the tendency of some minerals to break unevenly along curved or irregular surfaces
39 HARDNESS a mineral’s resistance to being scratched the greater a mineral’s resistance to being scratched, the higher the ratingMohs scale from 1 (talc) to 10 (diamond)Quartz (most common mineral and most dust particles) is 7
41 DENSITY (Specific Gravity) All minerals have density (mass / volume), but some are very denseExamples include galena, magnetite, and goldSpecific Gravity is the density of the mineral compared with density of water
42 SPECIAL PROPERTIESparticular to only a few types of minerals – need specialized equipment to determine these propertiesEXAMPLES: fluorescence, chemical reaction, optical properties, magnetism, taste, radioactivity
43 Special Property - Fluorescence Some minerals will glow when placed under short-wave or long-wave ultraviolet raysFranklin and Ogdensburg NJ are famous for their fluorescent mineralsCalcite (red) and willemite (green)
44 Special Property - Salty Taste DO NOT TASTE MOST MINERALS!Halite is the exception--it will taste saltyBorax tastes sweet.
45 Special Property - Magnetism Many iron minerals will produce an invisible magnetic force field“Lodestone” was used by Vikings more than 1,000 years ago as compasses
46 Special Property - Radioactivity Autunite contains uranium.
47 Special Property - Chemical reaction carbonates react with dilute HCl and other acids by fizzing or bubbling (releasing CO2 gas)CaCO3 + 2HCl = CO2 + H2O + CaCl2calcitehydrochloric acid
48 Special Property - Optical properties such as double refraction. Same sample of calcite, but it’s rotated.
54 Metamorphic Rockswhen changes in pressure, temperature or chemical makeup alter a rockExamples = calcite, garnet, graphite, hematite, magnetite, mica and talc
55 Hot-Water SolutionsGroundwater works its way downward and is heated by magma, then reacts with minerals to form a hot liquid solution. Dissolved metals and other elements crystallize to form new minerals.Examples = gold, copper, sulfur pyrite and galena
56 Hot Water SolutionsThis vein of gold was formed this way.
57 Plutonswhen magma rises upward through the crust and stops before reaching the surface it cools slowly forming millions of mineral crystals – it eventually solidifies to form a plutonExamples = mica, feldspar, magnetite and quartz
58 Pegmatites Magma moves upward and forms teardrop-shaped bodies Examples = topaz, tourmalinecan grow to several meters acrossPictured here is a sample of tourmaline from a pegmatite.
59 OREa mineral deposit large enough and pure enough to be mined for profitremoved by two methods = surface or subsurface mining
60 SURFACE MININGWhen mineral s deposits are located at or near the surface of the earthkinds = open pits, surface coal mines and quarriessurface coal mining also called strip mining
61 OPEN PIT MININGused to remove large, near-surface deposits of economically important minerals such as gold and copper
62 QUARRIESopen pits that are used to mine building stone, crushed rock, sand and gravel
63 SUBSURFACE MININGwhen mineral deposits are located too deep within the earth’s to be surface minedoften requires passageways to be dug into the earth to reach the ore
64 RECLAMATIONthe process of returning land to its original condition after mining is completedrequired by law reduces the potential harmful effects of mining to return the land to its original state after mining is completed
65 METALLIC MINERALShave shiny surfaces, do not let light pass through them and are good conductors of heat and electricitycan be processed into metals that are strong and do not rust, can be pounded into various shapes or stretched thinly without breaking
66 NONMETALLIC MINERALShave shiny or dull surfaces, may let light pass through them and are good insulators of electricitymost widely used minerals in industry
67 GEMSTONESnonmetallic minerals that are highly valued for their beauty and rarity rather than their usefulnessdiamond, ruby, sapphire, emerald, aquamarine, topaz and tourmalinecolor is the most important characteristic of a gemstonemust be durable and hard enough to be cut and polished