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EQ1 INTRODUCTION TO EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING. EQ2 Sequence  Plate movement  Type of faults  Wave motion  Energy release  Urban earthquake risk  Structural.

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Presentation on theme: "EQ1 INTRODUCTION TO EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING. EQ2 Sequence  Plate movement  Type of faults  Wave motion  Energy release  Urban earthquake risk  Structural."— Presentation transcript:

1 EQ1 INTRODUCTION TO EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

2 EQ2 Sequence  Plate movement  Type of faults  Wave motion  Energy release  Urban earthquake risk  Structural performance level  Evaluation approach

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4 EQ4 Large Earthquakes

5 Elastic Rebound Theory

6 EQ6 Indian Plate

7 EQ7 Historical Earthquakes in the Himalaya

8 EQ8 Southern Asia

9 EQ9

10 EQ m cm/yr =4-500 years Plate Movement

11 EQ11 Tibetan PlateauHimalayasIndian Plate

12 EQ12 Tibet Indian Plate

13 EQ13 Tibet Indian Plate

14 EQ14 Tibet Indian Plate

15 EQ15 Tibet critical stress

16 EQ16 great earthquake Tibet 4-10 m 2-20 m surface rupture 1.5 m co-seismic subsidence the longer the inactivity the bigger the 'quake’

17 EQ17 Faults Through the study of faults and their effects, much can be learned about the size and recurrence intervals of earthquakes. Faults also teach us about crustal movements that have produced mountains and changed continents. Stresses often continue to build until they exceed the strength of the bond in that section of crust. The rock then breaks, and an earthquake occurs, sometimes releasing massive amounts of energy. Faults vary in length from a few centimeters to hundreds of kilometers across. Displacements of one side of the fault over the other vary from fractions of a meter to many kilometers. In many cases the displacement is not confined to a single fracture but is distributed throughout a fault zone. Many faults do not rupture the surface, but when the surface is broken, the fault line is visible as a fault trace or outcrop. Contd…

18 EQ18 Vertical or horizontal movement may occur along a fault plane. Sometimes both vertical and horizontal movement occur simultaneously. Faults are named according to the type of movement that has occurred. The term slip is used to indicate relative displacement across the fault. When the movement along the fault plane is generally horizontal, it is a strike-slip fault. These are also called lateral faults. Offset streams are found along active strike-slip faults. A transform fault is a zone of lateral movement along which the ridges and rises have been offset and along which the displacement suddenly stops or changes form and direction. When the movement along the fault plane is predominately vertical, it is a dip-slip fault. There are sub- classifications within this category. Contd… Faults

19 EQ19 A normal fault occurs when the earth above the fracture moves down in respect to the earth below the fracture. A reverse fault occurs when the rocks above the fracture move up with respect to those below. A reverse fault with an angle of less than 45 degrees is called a thrust fault. Thrust faults are generally characterized by older rocks resting on younger rocks, although in some cases younger rocks may be thrust over older rocks. Faults

20 EQ20 Fault Motion Diagram showing the three main types of fault motion.

21 EQ21 Left Lateral Fault

22 EQ22 Left Lateral Fault

23 EQ23 Left Lateral Fault

24 EQ24 Right Lateral Fault

25 EQ25 Right Lateral Fault

26 EQ26 Right Lateral Fault

27 EQ27 Normal Faulting

28 EQ28 Normal Fault

29 EQ29 Thrust Faulting

30 EQ30 Thrust Fault

31 EQ31 Subduction

32 EQ32 Time Period

33 EQ33 Wave Motion

34 EQ34 Wave Travel

35 EQ35 Wave Path

36 EQ36 Wavefront

37 EQ37 Energy Release

38 EQ38 Energy Release

39 EQ39 October 9, September 15,2002

40 EQ40 HAZARDSHAZARDS ELEMENTS OF URBAN EARTHQUAKE RISK EXPOSUREEXPOSURE VULNERABILITYVULNERABILITY LOCATIONLOCATION RISKRISK

41 EQ41

42 EQ42

43 EQ43

44 EQ44

45 EQ45 Performance Level the permissible amount of damage, given that design loading occurs the permissible amount of damage, given that design loading occurs

46 EQ46 Structural Performance Levels Joe’s GreatFood! ServiceabilityCollapse Prevention Joe’s GreatFood! Immediate Occupancy Damage 0%99%

47 EQ47 Serviceability Level Negligible structural and nonstructural damage Negligible structural and nonstructural damage Utilities are available Utilities are available Facility is available for immediate re-use Facility is available for immediate re-use Repair costs are minimal to nil Repair costs are minimal to nil Joe’s GreatFood!

48 EQ48 Immediate Occupancy Level Negligible structural damage Negligible structural damage Minor nonstructural damage Minor nonstructural damage Building is safe to occupy but may not function Building is safe to occupy but may not function Limited interruption of operations Limited interruption of operations Repair Cost < 15% Repair Cost < 15% Joe’s GreatFood!

49 EQ49 Immediate Occupancy

50 EQ50 Life-Safety

51 EQ51 Collapse Prevention Level Extensive structural and non-structural damage Extensive structural and non-structural damage Extended loss of use Extended loss of use Repair may not be practical Repair may not be practical Repair costs >> 30% Repair costs >> 30%

52 EQ52 Collapse Prevention

53 EQ53 Collapsed

54 EQ54 Collapsed

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56 EQ56

57 EQ57 Global Response & Performance Structural Displacement  Loading Severity Joe’s GreatFood! GreatFood!

58 EQ58 Evaluation Approach Spectral Acceleration at Period T Annual Probability of Exceedance 1- Select Hazard Level 2- Determine ground Motion Sa  t 3- Run Analysis 4- Determine Drift & Component Demands Lateral Displacement -  Lateral Force - V  CP 0 Collapse Prevention margin = 1.0 Life Safety margin = 1.33 to 1.5  LS Collapse margin > 1.0 Immediate Occupancy Joe’s Beer!Food! GreatFood! 5- Determine Performance 6- Pass or Fail Criterion evaluated on component by component basis

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