Presentation on theme: "Settlement & Population SiteThe actual land a settlement is built on SituationThe land and resources that surround an area FunctionWhat purpose a settlement."— Presentation transcript:
Settlement & Population SiteThe actual land a settlement is built on SituationThe land and resources that surround an area FunctionWhat purpose a settlement has CBDCentral Business District – centre of a town/city Burgess ModelA concentric ring model of how settlements grow Sphere of InfluenceHow far people will travel to use a settlement HierarchyA way of ranking from top to bottom GreenbeltAn area of protected countryside around a settlement Self Help SchemesTraining and providing materials for locals to help themselves Shanty town / SlumA informal part of a city – extremely poor ThresholdMaximum or minimum people required SETTLEMENT UrbanisationProcess of people moving into towns and cities Urban regenerationMaking a bad part of the city better (sustainably) HDIHuman development Index (measure of development) Birth RateAmount of babies born per 1000 Death RateAmount of deaths per 1000 Demographic Transition model 5 stages of development plotting, B.R, D.R and total population. Natural IncreasePopulation rising or falling (decrease) Population DensityAmount of people living in 1square km Population DistributionWhere people live within a certain area Push & Pull FactorsReasons to leave & reasons to move there MigrationMovement of people for work or permanent living. ImmigrationMoving into a country (immigrant) EmigrationMoving out of a country (emigrant) RefugeeA person/s forced to move from their home area Population ControlTrying to increase or decrease population of an area. POPULATION
Settlement & Population Site Situation Function CBD Burgess Model Sphere of Influence Hierarchy Greenbelt Self Help Schemes Shanty town / Slum Threshold SETTLEMENT Urbanisation Urban regeneration HDI Birth Rate Death Rate Demographic Transition model Natural Increase Population Density Population Distribution Push & Pull Factors Migration Immigration Emigration Refugee Population Control POPULATION
Natural hazards & People Crust Top layer of the earth Tectonic Plate Sections of the crust Lava Melted rock above ground Magma Melted Rock in Volcano's Core Centre of the earth (inner & outer) Conservative Boundary Plates rubbing alongside each-other. Constructive Boundary Plates pulling apart Collision Boundary Plates push towards each other: Same density Destructive Boundary Plates pushing towards each-other: Oceanic sinks Convection Currents The movements of the magma (moves plates) EARTH STRUCTURE EARTHQUAKES Epicentre Start of the earthquake Focus Main point of the earthquake on the crust Hypocentre The centre of the quake under the crust Seismic Wave Movement of energy from an earthquake shock Magnitude The strength of an earthquake. (Richter Scale) VOLCANOES Shield Volcano A volcano created by layers of lava and ash. Pyroclastic Flow Poisonous Ash Cloud Vent Where magma comes out and becomes lava EFFECTS Primary Effects that happen when the hazard happens Secondary Effects that happen after the natural hazard has finished
Economic activity FARMING Heavy Industry Making things (steel) secondary industry Footloose Industry High tech modern industry Industrialisation More factories in an area De-industrialisation Less factories in an area NIC Newly Industrialised country TNC / MNC Trans / Multi national corporation (Ford) Primary Jobs using the land or sea Secondary Making things Tertiary Providing a service Quaternary Research and science jobs Raw Materials Items from the earth (coal) Systems Inputs – Processes – Outputs - Feedback Tourism Making money from holidays and tourists. INDUSTRY Arable Farming Crops only Commercial Farming For money Diversification Making money in different ways Extensive Farming Not using much money of machinery Intensive Farming Using a lot of money and machines Market Gardening Growing specific crops (roses Kenya) Mixed Farming Both arable and pastoral Pastoral Farming Animal faming Subsistence Farming To feed your own family / community Set Aside Land not to be used: paid for by the government.
Economic activity FARMING Heavy Industry Footloose Industry Industrialisation De-industrialisation NIC TNC / MNC Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary Raw Materials Systems Tourism INDUSTRY Arable Farming Commercial Farming Diversification Extensive Farming Intensive Farming Market Gardening Mixed Farming Pastoral Farming Subsistence Farming Set Aside
Physical Themes Weather The day to day conditions in a place. Climate The average weather conditions Air Pressure The weight of the air pushing down on the earth Anti Cyclone High air pressure stopping movement of air Depression Low air pressure allowing movement of air Cold Front The front of a cold air mass Warm Front The front of a air warm air mass Prevailing Wind The most common direction of wing Convectional Rainfall Constant evaporation causes rainfall on a place Relief Rainfall Rain caused by condensation of warm air: high ground Frontal Rainfall Rain when warm and cold air meets Rain Shadow The area behind relief rainfall on highland Maritime The name of the UK’s climate ECOSYSTEMS Biome A large global ecosystem Ecosystem Living and non living things in a particular environment. Aforestation The planting of trees Deforestation The cutting down of large numbers of trees Tropical / Equatorial The are around the equator (such as Amazon) WEATHER & CLIMATE GEOMORPHOLOGY Erosion The wearing away of material Transportation The movement of material Deposition The putting / dropping down of material
Physical Themes Weather Climate Air Pressure Anti Cyclone Depression Cold Front Warm Front Prevailing Wind Convectional Rainfall Relief Rainfall Frontal Rainfall Rain Shadow Maritime ECOSYSTEMS Biome Ecosystem Aforestation Deforestation Tropical / Equatorial WEATHER & CLIMATE GEOMORPHOLOGY Erosion Transportation Deposition