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1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key. How to Use This Presentation

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation TransparenciesStandardized Test Prep Visual Concepts Resources Brain Food Video Quiz

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Minerals of Earth’s Crust Chapter 5 Table of Contents Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Section 2 Identifying Minerals

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Objectives Define mineral. Compare the two main groups of minerals. Identify the six types of silicate crystalline structures. Describe three common nonsilicate crystalline structures.

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Characteristics of Minerals mineral a natural, usually inorganic solid that has a characteristic chemical composition, an orderly internal structure, and a characteristic set of physical properties. To be a mineral, a substance must have four characteristics: it must be inorganic—it cannot be made of or by living things; it must occur naturally—it cannot be man-made; it must be a crystalline solid; it must have a consistent chemical composition.

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Characteristics of Minerals, continued The diagram below shows the four characteristics of minerals.

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Kinds of Minerals The 20 most common minerals are called rock-forming minerals because they form the rocks that make up Earth’s crust. Ten minerals are so common that they make up 90% of Earth’s crust. These minerals are quartz, orthoclase, plagioclase, muscovite, biotite, calcite, dolomite, halite, gypsum, and ferromagnesian minerals. All minerals can be classified into two main groups—silicate minerals and nonsilicate minerals—based on their chemical compositions.

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Kinds of Minerals, continued Silicate Minerals silicate mineral a mineral that contains a combination of silicon and oxygen, and that may also contain one or more metals Common silicate minerals include quartz, feldspars, micas,and ferromagnesian minerals, such as amphiboles, pyroxenes, and olivines. Silicate minerals make up 96% of Earth’s crust. Quartz and feldspar alone make up more than 50% of the crust.

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Kinds of Minerals, continued Nonsilicate Minerals nonsilicate mineral a mineral that does not contain compounds of silicon and oxygen Nonsilicate minerals comprise about 4% of Earth’s crust. Nonsilicate minerals are organized into six major groups based on their chemical compositions. The six major groups of nonsilicate minerals are carbonates, halides, native elements, oxides, sulfates, and sulfides.

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Kinds of Minerals, continued Reading Check What compound of elements will you never find in a nonsilicate mineral?

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Kinds of Minerals, continued Reading Check What compound of elements will you never find in a nonsilicate mineral? Nonsilicate minerals never contain compounds of silicon bonded to oxygen.

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Crystalline Structure Each type of mineral is characterized by a specific geometric arrangement of atoms, or its crystalline structure. crystal a solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a regular, repeating pattern One way that scientists study the structure of crystals is by using X rays. X rays that pass through a crystal and strike a photographic plate produce an image that shows the geometric arrangement of the atoms in the crystal.

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Crystalline Structure of Silicate Minerals Even though there are many kinds of silicate minerals, their crystalline structure is made up of the same basic building blocks—silicon-oxygen tetrahedra. silicon-oxygen tetrahedron the basic unit of the structure of silicate minerals; a silicon ion chemically bonded to and surrounded by four oxygen ions Isolated Tetrahedral Silicates In minerals that have isolated tetrahedra, only atoms other than silicon and oxygen atoms like silicon-oxygen tetrahedra together. Olivine is an isolated tetrahedral silicate.

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Crystalline Structure of Silicate Minerals, continued The diagram below shows the tetrahedral arrangement of isolated tetrahedral silicate minerals.

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Crystalline Structure of Silicate Minerals, continued Reading Check What is the building block of the silicate crystalline structure?

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Crystalline Structure of Silicate Minerals, continued Reading Check What is the building block of the silicate crystalline structure? The building block of the silicate crystalline structure is a four-sided structure known as the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron, which is one silicon atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms.

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Crystalline Structure of Silicate Minerals, continued Ring Silicates Ring silicates form when shared oxygen atoms join the tetrahedra to form three-, four-, or six-sided rings. Beryl and tourmaline are ring silicates. Single-Chain Silicates In single-chain silicates, each tetrahedron is bonded to two others by shared oxygen atoms. Most double-chain silicates are called pyroxenes.

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Crystalline Structure of Silicate Minerals, continued The diagram below shows the tetrahedral arrangement of ring silicate minerals.

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Crystalline Structure of Silicate Minerals, continued The diagram below shows the tetrahedral arrangement of single- chain silicate minerals.

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Crystalline Structure of Silicate Minerals, continued Double-Chain Silicates In double-chain silicates, two single chains of tetrahedra bond to each other. Most double-chain silicates are called amphiboles. Sheet Silicates In the sheet silicates, each tetrahedron shares three oxygen atoms with other tetrahedra. The fourth oxygen atom bonds with an atom of aluminum or magnesium, which joins the sheets together. The mica minerals, such as muscovite and biotite, are sheet silicates.

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Crystalline Structure of Silicate Minerals, continued The diagram below shows the tetrahedral arrangement of double- chain silicate minerals.

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Crystalline Structure of Silicate Minerals, continued The diagram below shows the tetrahedral arrangement of sheet silicate minerals.

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Crystalline Structure of Silicate Minerals, continued Framework Silicates In the framework silicates, each tetrahedron is bonded to four neighboring tetrahedra to form a three-dimensional network. Frameworks that contain only silicon-oxygen tetrahedra are the mineral quartz. Other framework silicates contain some tetrahedra in which atoms of aluminum or other metals substitute for some of the silicon atoms. Quartz and feldspars are framework silicates.

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Crystalline Structure of Silicate Minerals, continued The diagram below shows the tetrahedral arrangement of framework silicate minerals.

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 5 Crystalline Structure of Nonsilicate Minerals Because nonsilicate minerals have diverse chemical compositions, nonsilicate minerals display a vast variety of crystalline structures. Common crystalline structures for nonsilicate minerals include cubes, hexagonal prisms, and irregular masses. The structure of a nonsilicate crystal determines the mineral’s characteristics. In the crystal structure called closest packing, each metal atom is surrounded by 8 to 12 other metal atoms that are as close to each other as the charges of the atomic nuclei will allow.

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Objectives Describe seven physical properties that help distinguish one mineral from another. List five special properties that may help identify certain minerals.

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Physical Properties of Minerals mineralogist a person who examines, analyzes, and classifies minerals Each mineral has specific properties that are the result of its chemical composition and crystalline structure. These properties provide useful clues for identifying minerals. Many of these properties can be identified by simply looking at a sample of the mineral or through simple tests.

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Physical Properties of Minerals, continued Color While color is a property that is easily observed, it is unreliable for the identification of minerals. The color of a mineral sample can be affected by the inclusion of impurities or by weathering processes. Streak streak the color of a mineral in powdered form Streak is more reliable than color for the identification of minerals. Streak is determined by rubbing some of the mineral against an unglazed ceramic tile called a streak plate.

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Physical Properties of Minerals, continued Luster luster the way in which a mineral reflects light A mineral is said to have a metallic luster if the mineral reflects light as a polished metal does. All other minerals have nonmetallic luster. There are several types of nonmetallic luster, including glassy, waxy, pearly, brilliant, and earthy.

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 5 Mineral Color, Luster, and Streak Section 2 Identifying Minerals

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Physical Properties of Minerals, continued Cleavage and Fracture cleavage in geology, the tendency of a mineral to split along specific planes of weakness to form smooth, flat surfaces fracture the manner in which a mineral breaks along either curved or irregular surfaces Uneven or irregular fractures have rough surfaces. Splintery or fibrous fractures look like a piece of broken wood. Curved surfaces are conchoidal fractures.

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 5 Mineral Cleavage and Fracture Section 2 Identifying Minerals

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Physical Properties of Minerals, continued Hardness The measure of the ability of a mineral to resist scratching is called hardness. Hardness does not mean “resistance to cleavage or fracture.” The hardness of a mineral can be determined by comparing the mineral to minerals of Mohs hardness scale. Mohs hardness scale the standard scale against which the hardness of minerals is rated. The strength of the bonds between the atoms that make up a mineral’s internal structure determines the hardness of a mineral.

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Physical Properties of Minerals, continued The diagram below shows Mohs Hardness Scale.

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Physical Properties of Minerals, continued Reading Check What determines the hardness of a mineral?

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Physical Properties of Minerals, continued Reading Check What determines the hardness of a mineral? The strength and geometric arrangement of the bonds between the atoms that make up a mineral’s internal structure determine the hardness of a mineral.

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Physical Properties of Minerals, continued Crystal Shape A mineral crystal forms in one of six basic shapes. A certain mineral always has the same general shape because the atoms that form the mineral’s crystals always combine in the same geometric pattern. The six basic crystal systems are the isometric or cubic system, the orthorhombic system, the tetragonal system, the hexagonal system, the monoclinic system, and the triclinic system.

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Physical Properties of Minerals, continued The diagram below shows the six basic crystal systems.

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Physical Properties of Minerals, continued Density density the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of a substance; commonly expressed as grams per cubic centimeter for solids The density of a mineral depends on the kinds of atoms in the mineral and on how closely the atoms are packed. density = mass  volume

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 5 Types of Basic Crystalline Systems Section 2 Identifying Minerals

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Special Properties of Minerals A few minerals have some additional, special properties that can help identify those minerals. Fluorescence and Phosphorescence The ability to glow under ultraviolet light is called fluorescence. Fluorescent minerals absorb ultraviolet light and then produce visible light of various colors. The property of some minerals to glow after the ultraviolet light is turned off is called phosphorescence.

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Special Properties of Minerals, continued Chatoyancy and Asterism In reflected light, some minerals display a silky appearance that is called chatoyancy, or the cat’s-eye effect. A similar effect called asterism is the phenomenon in which a six-sided star appears when a mineral reflects light. Double Refraction The property of some minerals, particularly some forms of calcite, to produce a double image of any object viewed through the mineral is called double refraction.

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Special Properties of Minerals, continued Reading Check What is the difference between chatoyancy and asterism?

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Special Properties of Minerals, continued Reading Check What is the difference between chatoyancy and asterism? Chatoyancy is the silky appearance of some minerals in reflected light. Asterism is the appearance of a six- sided star when a mineral reflects light.

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 5 Special Properties of Minerals, continued Magnetism Minerals that are attracted to magnets display the property of magnetism. These minerals may be magnetic themselves. In general, nonsilicate minerals that contain iron are more likely to be magnetic than silicate minerals are. Radioactivity The property known as radioactivity results as unstable nuclei decay over time into stable nuclei by releasing particles and energy. A Geiger counter is used to detect the released particles and, thus, to identify minerals that are radioactive.

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Maps in Action Chapter 5 Maps in Action Rock and Mineral Production in the United States

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Minerals of Earth’s Crust Chapter 5 Brain Food Video Quiz

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice 1.Coal is A. organic and a mineral. B. inorganic and a mineral. C. organic and not a mineral. D. inorganic and not a mineral. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1.Coal is A. organic and a mineral. B. inorganic and a mineral. C. organic and not a mineral. D. inorganic and not a mineral. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which of the following is one of the 10 rock-forming minerals that make up 90% of Earth’s crust? F. quartz G. fluorite H. copper I. talc Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which of the following is one of the 10 rock-forming minerals that make up 90% of Earth’s crust? F. quartz G. fluorite H. copper I. talc Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

52 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. Minerals can be identified by all of the following properties except A. color. B. streak. C. hardness. D. luster. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

53 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. Minerals can be identified by all of the following properties except A. color. B. streak. C. hardness. D. luster. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

54 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4. All minerals in Earth’s crust F. have a crystalline structure. G. are classified as ring silicates. H. are classified as pyroxenes or amphiboles. I. have no silicon in their tetrahedral structure. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

55 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4. All minerals in Earth’s crust F. have a crystalline structure. G. are classified as ring silicates. H. are classified as pyroxenes or amphiboles. I. have no silicon in their tetrahedral structure. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

56 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 5. Which mineral can be scratched by a fingernail that has a hardness of 2.5 on the Mohs scale? A. diamond B. quartz C. topaz D. talc Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

57 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 5. Which mineral can be scratched by a fingernail that has a hardness of 2.5 on the Mohs scale? A. diamond B. quartz C. topaz D. talc Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

58 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response 6. Carbonates, halides, native elements, oxides, sulfates, and sulfides are classes of what mineral group? Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

59 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response, continued 6. Carbonates, halides, native elements, oxides, sulfates, and sulfides are classes of what mineral group? nonsilicate minerals Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

60 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response, continued 7. What mineral is made up of only the elements oxygen and silicon? Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

61 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response, continued 7. What mineral is made up of only the elements oxygen and silicon? quartz Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

62 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response, continued 8. What property is a mineral said to have when a person is able to view double images through it? Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

63 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response, continued 8. What property is a mineral said to have when a person is able to view double images through it? double refraction Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

64 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills Read the passage below. Then, answer questions 9–11. Native American Copper In North America, copper was mined at least 6,700 years ago by the Native Americans who lived on Michigan’s upper peninsula. Much of this mining took place on the Isle Royale, an island located in the waters of Lake Superior. These ancient people removed copper from the rock by using stone hammers and wedges. The rock was sometimes heated to make breaking it easier. Copper that was mined was used to make a wide variety of items for the Native Americans, including jewelry, tools, weapons, fish hooks, and other objects. These objects were often marked with intricate designs. The copper mined at the Lake Superior site was traded over long distances along ancient trade routes. Copper objects from the region have been found in Ohio, Florida, the Southwest, and the Northwest. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

65 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 9. According to the passage, Native Americans who mined copper A. used the mineral as a form of currency when buying goods from other tribes. B. traded copper objects with other Native American tribes over a large area. C. used the mineral to produce vastly superior weapons and armor. D. sold it to the Native Americans living around Lake Superior. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

66 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 9. According to the passage, Native Americans who mined copper A. used the mineral as a form of currency when buying goods from other tribes. B. traded copper objects with other Native American tribes over a large area. C. used the mineral to produce vastly superior weapons and armor. D. sold it to the Native Americans living around Lake Superior. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

67 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 10. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the information in the passage? F. Copper is a very strong metal and can be forged into extremely strong items. G. Copper mining in the ancient world was only common in North America. H. Copper is a useful metal that can be forged into a wide variety of goods. I. Copper is a weak metal, and no items made by the ancient Native Americans remains. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

68 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 10. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the information in the passage? F. Copper is a very strong metal and can be forged into extremely strong items. G. Copper mining in the ancient world was only common in North America. H. Copper is a useful metal that can be forged into a wide variety of goods. I. Copper is a weak metal, and no items made by the ancient Native Americans remains. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

69 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 11. What are some properties of copper that might have made the metal useful to Native Americans? Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

70 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 11. What are some properties of copper that might have made the metal useful to Native Americans? Answers should include the following: most early metals used by humans were soft metals that could be easily worked and shaped; copper is relatively abundant in many areas and it is easy to mine and refine; copper is a soft metal that is easily bent and shaped; copper resists corrosion and can be polished to a shining finish; copper weapons and tools were superior in strength and durability to previous tools. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

71 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics Use the figure below to answer questions 12–13. The figure shows the abundance of various elements in Earth’s crust. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

72 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 12. Hematite is composed of oxygen and what other element? A. calcium B. aluminum C. sodium D. iron Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

73 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 12. Hematite is composed of oxygen and what other element? A. calcium B. aluminum C. sodium D. iron Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

74 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 13. Silicate minerals make up about 95% of Earth’s crust. However, the elements present in all minerals in this group, oxygen and silicon, make up a significantly smaller percentage of the weight of Earth’s crust. How can this discrepancy be explained? Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

75 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 13. Silicate minerals make up about 95% of Earth’s crust. However, the elements present in all minerals in this group, oxygen and silicon, make up a significantly smaller percentage of the weight of Earth’s crust. How can this discrepancy be explained? Answers should include the following: by weight, oxygen and silicon make up 74.3% of Earth’s crust; minerals that contain these elements are the silicate minerals; however, silicate minerals may also contain additional elements; these additional elements make the total weight of silicate minerals greater than the total weight of the two base elements oxygen and silicon. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

76 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued Use the figure below to answer questions 14–15. The table shows information about silicate minerals. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

77 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 14. How is the cleavage of amphibole minerals similar to that of feldspar minerals? F. Both have two planes. G. Both have one plane. H. Both cleave at 60°. I. Both cleave at 90°. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

78 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 14. How is the cleavage of amphibole minerals similar to that of feldspar minerals? F. Both have two planes. G. Both have one plane. H. Both cleave at 60°. I. Both cleave at 90°. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

79 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 15. Which minerals are ferromagnesian? How can you identify these minerals? Predict how the chemical composition of ferromagnesian minerals affects the minerals’ density and magnetic properties. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 5

80 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued Answers should include the following: olivines, pyroxenes, amphiboles, and biotite are ferromagnesian minerals; ferromagnesian minerals are rich in both iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg); due to the presence of these metallic elements, the minerals are often dark in color, and metallic lusters and high densities are common features of these minerals; due to the high iron content of these minerals, they are also commonly magnetic. Standardized Test Prep Chapter Which minerals are ferromagnesian? How can you identify these minerals? Predict how the chemical composition of ferromagnesian minerals affects the minerals’ density and magnetic properties.

81 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Characteristics of Minerals Chapter 5

82 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Structures of Silicate Minerals Chapter 5

83 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Structures of Silicate Minerals Chapter 5

84 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Structures of Silicate Minerals Chapter 5

85 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Structures of Silicate Minerals Chapter 5

86 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Structures of Silicate Minerals Chapter 5

87 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Structures of Silicate Minerals Chapter 5

88 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Mohs Hardness Scale Chapter 5

89 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Six Basic Crystal Structures Chapter 5

90 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Rock and Mineral Production in the United States Chapter 5


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