Presentation on theme: "Knowledge Capture and Transfer at Kraft Foods"— Presentation transcript:
1 Knowledge Capture and Transfer at Kraft Foods KSU Webinar SeriesMarch 20, 2014Kraft Foods RDQ&I Knowledge ManagementNanako MuraJeni Wolf
2 AGENDA Context Defining and Capturing Critical Knowledge About Kraft Foods and KMOur KM strategy and approachDefining and Capturing Critical KnowledgeAssessing and prioritizing areas for Knowledge CaptureMASK method for capturing and modeling tacit knowledgeKnowledge Mapping for role transitionsFinal Thoughts
3 Kraft at a GlanceOur products are found In 98% of U.S. households, 99% in Canada10 brands with more than $500MM in 2012 annual salesAnother 19 brands over $100MM$18+ billion net revenueMore than 23,000 employeesSource: Kraft Foods Group, Nielsen
4 Over 300 Years of Iconic Brands… and Counting 196619721975198319881979196517771780186218701880189919031905190619271928193019331937195419591957198220042011188918961883189718921800190017002000Source: Kraft Foods Archives
5 Kraft has over 750 R&D employees located across US and Canada MontrealTorontoMadisonTarrytownGlenviewEast HanoverMemphisRDQ&I CentersSatellite locations
6 Research, Development, Quality and Innovation Organization Chuck DavisEVPRDQ&IBusiness UnitsCenter SupportCanadaQuality and Food SafetyResearch & Supplier IntegrationPackaging Research and InnovationStrategyFoodserviceBeverageAssoc. Director- IP, KM, TrainingNanako MuraCheese & DairyAssoc. Prin. Scientist - TrainingOpenOscar MayerEnhancers and Snack NutsAssoc. Prin. Scientist - KMJeni WolfKM, IP AnalystKathy SullivanAssoc. Prin. Scientist – IPRathna KokaMeals and Desserts
7 Role of the Knowledge Management Team Internal knowledge capture, transfer & reuseAccess to external knowledge and informationTraining AcademyProvides foundational capabilities for RDQ&I to create winning productsKnowledge capture toolsDocumentation toolsCollaboration toolsSource of best practices and toolsManagement of subscription databases, licenses, print resources, doc deliveryCapture and lever economies of scaleTechnical landscape searchManagement of physical librariesAdministration of toolsSubject matter expertise that BU’s cannot fully establish on own
8 Impetus for creating a Knowledge Management strategy Knowing What We Know
9 Situations resulting in knowledge at risk RetirementsInternal movesAttritionR&D center relocationGeographic dispersionRe-structuring and decentralizationSpin-off/divestiture
10 Underlying everything are tools/processes and change management Over the last 3-4 years, the KM strategy has focused on helping R&D “Know What We Know”Expertise Management Connect to and lever expertsCollaboration & Social Networks Lever the collective power of the organizationDocumentation & Content Management Capture, organize, transfer & archive informationIn addition, IT, Change Management was overlaid over these areasTacit Knowledge Capture Capture experiential knowledge, know howUnderlying everything are tools/processes and change management
11 Make Kraft THE North American Food & Beverage Company Knowledge management plays an important role in supporting Kraft’s mission and key strategiesMake Kraft THE North American Food & Beverage Company
12 Assessing Tacit Knowledge Needs Identify Knowledge Fields of InterestCollect Information on CriticalityAnalyze of Each FieldPrioritize Critical Fields for CaptureBased on MASKII a technique developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission by staff at the Universite de Technologie de TroyesStructured approachIdentify most critical fields at riskMatch those fields with an appropriate KRT method- During 2013 we had several requests for KRT to be completed and needed a way of assessing which were the most critical
13 Identify Fields of Knowledge for Retention Solicit a list from RDQ&I LeadershipRepresentation from each Business UnitFocus on areas most important to the BusinessEmployees likely to retire in the next 1-3 yearsTechnical areas with uni-personal knowledgeTechnologies that are critical but not formally documentedOur leadership proposed a list of critical areas of knowledge to captureKM Group Role: Prioritize needs against resource availability and available techniques
14 Identify Critical Knowledge RareNumber and availability of knowledge holdersAvailability of knowledge outside KraftAre we a leader in this fieldUsefulAlignment with mission and goalsEmergence of the fieldAdaptability of the fieldDifficult to acquireDifficulty of identifying sources for the knowledgeRole of networksDifficult to applyDepth of the knowledgeHistory of the fieldRole of external factorsEvaluate both present and predicted future criticalityMASK II measures the knowledge against 4 criteria that when taken together can give a measure of the criticality of a knowledge domain. We developed a series of questions against each criteria to assess.
15 Interview Process 2 technical experts + 1 manager per knowledge field Scored the knowledge field against the 11 questionsQuestions were not shared prior to the interviewInterviews were less than 30 minutes eachGathered commentaryGives meaning and depth to the scoreUsed to help scope out knowledge captureGathered names of additional people with expertise
16 Developed a scorecard to capture the output of the interviews. Commentary was an important piece to help distinguish between close scores.
17 Analyze Each Field of Knowledge Field names generalized for confidentiality.Scores were added to give an idea of the rarity, strategic breadth, difficulty of acquiring and difficulty of use of each area.
18 Prioritizing Each Field of Knowledge As we were going through this prioritization process, a voluntary early retirement option was offered.Graphing each area showed certain areas bubbled to the top, rarity and strategic breadth were driving criteria for us.
19 Prioritized Fields for Capture Scores sub totaled for each area of criticalityScores totaled for each Field of KnowledgeFinal recommendation based on 3 factors:ScoresCommentaryTimeline of retiring experts
20 Knowledge Books and the MASK Method (Method for Analyzing and Structuring Knowledge)First developed for the French Atomic Energy CommissionLater developed at academic institutionsFurther developed through applications in large companies
21 Success FactorsThe expert(s) must be available to participate and make the Knowledge Book a priorityManagement support is keyEngage a Recipient early to support the expertThe needs of future recipients of the Knowledge Book must be consideredExisting relevant documentation should be included in the Knowledge BookBy reference or including the contentImportant not to under estimate time requirements of this stepKnowledge Books should be living objectsA champion identified to own it and socialize itIntegrated into training on the topicThe field covered by the Knowledge Book must be largely stabilized80% well defined and stable; 20% exploratory and growingHuman factorsAbility of experts to communicate knowledge in a structured format
22 End Product PowerPoint in editable form Table of Contents is the Entry Point into the Knowledge Book; click to navigate
23 Knowledge Book Steps … All interviews are recorded Scoping Interview Knowledge Conversation 1(Immersion)Knowledge Conversation NIntegration of relevant documentsValidationSharing…2 H4 H4 HTBD2-6 WksAll interviews are recorded
24 Scoping the Knowledge Book Define the breadth and depth of the field of knowledgeIdentify areas for focusIdentify areas that are out of scopeIncorporate information gathered during the knowledge assessmentValidate and obtain feedbackDirect manager of ExpertKnowledge Book ChampionKnowledge Book RecipientsScope flexes during the process and is non-exhaustive
25 MASK Elicitation Interviews 1:1 meetings between the facilitator and the expert1 expert at a time to avoid cross talk between expertsFacilitator has no prior knowledge of the subjectAvoid assumptions and biasCommon question are why, how, what else, what is nextScope document helps initiate conversationConversation is allowed to flow naturallyModeling is done via notes on large pieces of paperComputer is avoided – digital distractionAudio of conversation is recordedUsed to help fill in the models4 hours of elicitation takes 8-16 hours to fully model
26 MASK Modeling Fundamentals A body of knowledge (Knowledge Corpus) can be reflected in 6 points of view:- The core of the MASK method is the philosophy that any body of knowledge can be reflected in a model or series of models- 6 models are used in the MASK method
27 Sample MASK Activity Model Making a Pie CrustBowlPastry CutterMeasuring CupsIngredient knowledgeProcess knowledgeFlourButterWaterRefrigeratorPlastic wrapPrepare the pie dough?DoughRolling pinPie plateDough know-howRest the doughRested DoughKnowledge of baking phenomenaActivity models describe a sequence of happenings with inputs/outputs; required resources; required knowledgePhotos are used for illustration? Leads to more detailsDialog boxes added for additional commentaryOvenShape the crustIt is best to roll the dough on a smooth surface like a stone countertopUse a small amount of flour to avoid sticking. Too much flour will toughen the doughCrust ready to bakeBake the crustBaked Crust
28 Sample MASK Phenomenon Model Baking a Pie CrustSourceTargetFlaky pie crustInfluenceType of flourType of fatFlour particles coated in fatFlowSteam is releasedDoug is slightly expanded.Initial oven temperature impacts steam generationSize of coated flour particle impacts final textureOver mixing of ingredients can limit steamConsequence:Thin and flaky crustWater is converted to steam during baking.Triggering Event:Combining of ingredientsCookingPhenomenon model describes a transition.Takes into account the triggering event, flow and consequenceInfluencing factors in the transition are captured
29 Sample Concept Model Pastry Pie PastryYeast DoughCakesFlaky CrustShort CrustSweet DoughBread DoughSheet CakesMuffinsA concept model looks at an item as a hierarchy.BreadBagelsSweet rollsDonuts
30 Sample Task Model Making Bread // // Knead the doughDust hands with reserved flourForm the loafBake the loafMeasure flour into a bowlSet ½ cup of flour asideCover the loaf and riseMake a well in the flourAdd yeastShows a set of steps needed to complete a taskFilled in circle is used to specify a required orderDouble slashes indicate any order is okDiamond indicates multiple possible outcomesAdd waterSpecialty breadPlain breadAdd additional ingredientsLeave as is
31 Ex. Product Development Ex. Package Development History ModelEvolution of the Knowledge DomainTimeline AEx. Product DevelopmentGeneration 1Generation 2Generation 3OBJECTIVETimeline BEx. Package DevelopmentMilestone (date)Generation 1Generation 2OBJECTIVEOBJECTIVE- Shows the change and evolution of a knowledge domain, and it’s sub-partsTimeline CEx. Product LaunchMilestone (date)Generation 1Generation 2
32 Lineage Model Evolution of Specific Concepts or Objects Evolution DriversPros and cons1st Generation2nd GenerationStart Date – End DateStart Date – End DatePros and consMore specific than the history model.3rd GenerationStart Date – End DateEvolution DriversPros and cons
33 Structure of a Knowledge Book Table of Contents is the starting pointDivided into sections accessed by links from a Table of ContentsMany links within the models to additional explanation and related materialsElicitation style and approach of the expert drives the end productBooks that have fewer models and more text explanationBooks that have more models and more pictures and chartsThe knowledge book is interacted with, clicked through, rather than read in sequential order like a bookThis same methodology can produce a variety of end products….
34 Example of a Highly Visual Book Activity, task and phenomenon models are heavily used here. Lots of links, pictures and graphs inserted.
35 Example of a Highly Textual Book More reliant on the concept model. Added in lots of other textual information
36 Advantages of Knowledge Modeling A picture is worth a thousand wordsWide applicability – not case specificAbility to reflect a complex knowledge areaCaptures decision processes and ways of thinkingSeveral models taken together for a complete depictionExtensive linking of models and contentIntegrates and incorporates information sourcesIf a document exists incorporate rather than re-modelLink to external content, reference it or add it verbatim within the bookEx. Technical Reports, photos, videos, books, journal articles
37 Socializing the Knowledge Book Expert and/or Knowledge Book Recipient presents the bookExpert and/or Knowledge Book Recipient submits the book as a Tech Report in R&D SuiteChampion communicates the existence of the bookRecipient updates the bookUsed as an element of formal training classes offered through Kraft University
38 Process Cheese Knowledge Book – 18 Months Later Systematically shared via presentation shortly after completionContents are generalized for training for non-technical internal audiencesVerbatim excerpts for technical trainingTool for new employee orientationUsed by senior experts as a standard reference“I found it extremely enlightening because it highlighted and put structure on what we learn. Often we create knowledge in seemingly random efforts, but this exercise help organize our areas of expertise and even highlight areas that could use more attention in the future” – Kraft expert
39 Additional Reading How to capitalize knowledge with the MASK method? Nada Matta; Jean-Louis Ermine; Gerard Aubertin; Jean-Yves TrivinThe MASK Method:English Documents from Jean-Louis Ermine
40 Knowledge Mapping For fast knowledge retention and transfer Mind map of responsibilities and activities that make up a roleShows connections and interdependencies within a roleAct as a training guide for managers who are new to their rolesIdentify knowledge that is unique to an individualBlueprint for future knowledge transfer
42 Final Thoughts Keys to Success Senior Management support and advocacyMust be business drivenMake it engaging and rewarding for the expertsInvolvement in Knowledge Retention and Transfer Activity is the ultimate professional complement