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Knowledge Capture and Transfer at Kraft Foods

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Presentation on theme: "Knowledge Capture and Transfer at Kraft Foods"— Presentation transcript:

1 Knowledge Capture and Transfer at Kraft Foods
KSU Webinar Series March 20, 2014 Kraft Foods RDQ&I Knowledge Management Nanako Mura Jeni Wolf

2 AGENDA Context Defining and Capturing Critical Knowledge
About Kraft Foods and KM Our KM strategy and approach Defining and Capturing Critical Knowledge Assessing and prioritizing areas for Knowledge Capture MASK method for capturing and modeling tacit knowledge Knowledge Mapping for role transitions Final Thoughts

3 Kraft at a Glance Our products are found In 98% of U.S. households, 99% in Canada 10 brands with more than $500MM in 2012 annual sales Another 19 brands over $100MM $18+ billion net revenue More than 23,000 employees Source: Kraft Foods Group, Nielsen

4 Over 300 Years of Iconic Brands… and Counting
1966 1972 1975 1983 1988 1979 1965 1777 1780 1862 1870 1880 1899 1903 1905 1906 1927 1928 1930 1933 1937 1954 1959 1957 1982 2004 2011 1889 1896 1883 1897 1892 1800 1900 1700 2000 Source: Kraft Foods Archives

5 Kraft has over 750 R&D employees located across US and Canada
Montreal Toronto Madison Tarrytown Glenview East Hanover Memphis RDQ&I Centers Satellite locations

6 Research, Development, Quality and Innovation Organization
Chuck Davis EVP RDQ&I Business Units Center Support Canada Quality and Food Safety Research & Supplier Integration Packaging Research and Innovation Strategy Foodservice Beverage Assoc. Director- IP, KM, Training Nanako Mura Cheese & Dairy Assoc. Prin. Scientist - Training Open Oscar Mayer Enhancers and Snack Nuts Assoc. Prin. Scientist - KM Jeni Wolf KM, IP Analyst Kathy Sullivan Assoc. Prin. Scientist – IP Rathna Koka Meals and Desserts

7 Role of the Knowledge Management Team
Internal knowledge capture, transfer & reuse Access to external knowledge and information Training Academy Provides foundational capabilities for RDQ&I to create winning products Knowledge capture tools Documentation tools Collaboration tools Source of best practices and tools Management of subscription databases, licenses, print resources, doc delivery Capture and lever economies of scale Technical landscape search Management of physical libraries Administration of tools Subject matter expertise that BU’s cannot fully establish on own

8 Impetus for creating a Knowledge Management strategy
Knowing What We Know

9 Situations resulting in knowledge at risk
Retirements Internal moves Attrition R&D center relocation Geographic dispersion Re-structuring and decentralization Spin-off/divestiture

10 Underlying everything are tools/processes and change management
Over the last 3-4 years, the KM strategy has focused on helping R&D “Know What We Know” Expertise Management Connect to and lever experts Collaboration & Social Networks Lever the collective power of the organization Documentation & Content Management Capture, organize, transfer & archive information In addition, IT, Change Management was overlaid over these areas Tacit Knowledge Capture Capture experiential knowledge, know how Underlying everything are tools/processes and change management

11 Make Kraft THE North American Food & Beverage Company
Knowledge management plays an important role in supporting Kraft’s mission and key strategies Make Kraft THE North American Food & Beverage Company

12 Assessing Tacit Knowledge Needs
Identify Knowledge Fields of Interest Collect Information on Criticality Analyze of Each Field Prioritize Critical Fields for Capture Based on MASKII a technique developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission by staff at the Universite de Technologie de Troyes Structured approach Identify most critical fields at risk Match those fields with an appropriate KRT method - During 2013 we had several requests for KRT to be completed and needed a way of assessing which were the most critical

13 Identify Fields of Knowledge for Retention
Solicit a list from RDQ&I Leadership Representation from each Business Unit Focus on areas most important to the Business Employees likely to retire in the next 1-3 years Technical areas with uni-personal knowledge Technologies that are critical but not formally documented Our leadership proposed a list of critical areas of knowledge to capture KM Group Role: Prioritize needs against resource availability and available techniques

14 Identify Critical Knowledge
Rare Number and availability of knowledge holders Availability of knowledge outside Kraft Are we a leader in this field Useful Alignment with mission and goals Emergence of the field Adaptability of the field Difficult to acquire Difficulty of identifying sources for the knowledge Role of networks Difficult to apply Depth of the knowledge History of the field Role of external factors Evaluate both present and predicted future criticality MASK II measures the knowledge against 4 criteria that when taken together can give a measure of the criticality of a knowledge domain. We developed a series of questions against each criteria to assess.

15 Interview Process 2 technical experts + 1 manager per knowledge field
Scored the knowledge field against the 11 questions Questions were not shared prior to the interview Interviews were less than 30 minutes each Gathered commentary Gives meaning and depth to the score Used to help scope out knowledge capture Gathered names of additional people with expertise

16 Developed a scorecard to capture the output of the interviews.
Commentary was an important piece to help distinguish between close scores.

17 Analyze Each Field of Knowledge
Field names generalized for confidentiality. Scores were added to give an idea of the rarity, strategic breadth, difficulty of acquiring and difficulty of use of each area.

18 Prioritizing Each Field of Knowledge
As we were going through this prioritization process, a voluntary early retirement option was offered. Graphing each area showed certain areas bubbled to the top, rarity and strategic breadth were driving criteria for us.

19 Prioritized Fields for Capture
Scores sub totaled for each area of criticality Scores totaled for each Field of Knowledge Final recommendation based on 3 factors: Scores Commentary Timeline of retiring experts

20 Knowledge Books and the MASK Method
(Method for Analyzing and Structuring Knowledge) First developed for the French Atomic Energy Commission Later developed at academic institutions Further developed through applications in large companies

21 Success Factors The expert(s) must be available to participate and make the Knowledge Book a priority Management support is key Engage a Recipient early to support the expert The needs of future recipients of the Knowledge Book must be considered Existing relevant documentation should be included in the Knowledge Book By reference or including the content Important not to under estimate time requirements of this step Knowledge Books should be living objects A champion identified to own it and socialize it Integrated into training on the topic The field covered by the Knowledge Book must be largely stabilized 80% well defined and stable; 20% exploratory and growing Human factors Ability of experts to communicate knowledge in a structured format

22 End Product PowerPoint in editable form
Table of Contents is the Entry Point into the Knowledge Book; click to navigate

23 Knowledge Book Steps … All interviews are recorded Scoping Interview
Knowledge Conversation 1 (Immersion) Knowledge Conversation N Integration of relevant documents Validation Sharing 2 H 4 H 4 H TBD 2-6 Wks All interviews are recorded

24 Scoping the Knowledge Book
Define the breadth and depth of the field of knowledge Identify areas for focus Identify areas that are out of scope Incorporate information gathered during the knowledge assessment Validate and obtain feedback Direct manager of Expert Knowledge Book Champion Knowledge Book Recipients Scope flexes during the process and is non-exhaustive

25 MASK Elicitation Interviews
1:1 meetings between the facilitator and the expert 1 expert at a time to avoid cross talk between experts Facilitator has no prior knowledge of the subject Avoid assumptions and bias Common question are why, how, what else, what is next Scope document helps initiate conversation Conversation is allowed to flow naturally Modeling is done via notes on large pieces of paper Computer is avoided – digital distraction Audio of conversation is recorded Used to help fill in the models 4 hours of elicitation takes 8-16 hours to fully model

26 MASK Modeling Fundamentals
A body of knowledge (Knowledge Corpus) can be reflected in 6 points of view: - The core of the MASK method is the philosophy that any body of knowledge can be reflected in a model or series of models - 6 models are used in the MASK method

27 Sample MASK Activity Model
Making a Pie Crust Bowl Pastry Cutter Measuring Cups Ingredient knowledge Process knowledge Flour Butter Water Refrigerator Plastic wrap Prepare the pie dough ? Dough Rolling pin Pie plate Dough know-how Rest the dough Rested Dough Knowledge of baking phenomena Activity models describe a sequence of happenings with inputs/outputs; required resources; required knowledge Photos are used for illustration ? Leads to more details Dialog boxes added for additional commentary Oven Shape the crust It is best to roll the dough on a smooth surface like a stone countertop Use a small amount of flour to avoid sticking. Too much flour will toughen the dough Crust ready to bake Bake the crust Baked Crust

28 Sample MASK Phenomenon Model
Baking a Pie Crust Source Target Flaky pie crust Influence Type of flour Type of fat Flour particles coated in fat Flow Steam is released Doug is slightly expanded. Initial oven temperature impacts steam generation Size of coated flour particle impacts final texture Over mixing of ingredients can limit steam Consequence: Thin and flaky crust Water is converted to steam during baking. Triggering Event: Combining of ingredients Cooking Phenomenon model describes a transition. Takes into account the triggering event, flow and consequence Influencing factors in the transition are captured

29 Sample Concept Model Pastry
Pie Pastry Yeast Dough Cakes Flaky Crust Short Crust Sweet Dough Bread Dough Sheet Cakes Muffins A concept model looks at an item as a hierarchy. Bread Bagels Sweet rolls Donuts

30 Sample Task Model Making Bread // //
Knead the dough Dust hands with reserved flour Form the loaf Bake the loaf Measure flour into a bowl Set ½ cup of flour aside Cover the loaf and rise Make a well in the flour Add yeast Shows a set of steps needed to complete a task Filled in circle is used to specify a required order Double slashes indicate any order is ok Diamond indicates multiple possible outcomes Add water Specialty bread Plain bread Add additional ingredients Leave as is

31 Ex. Product Development Ex. Package Development
History Model Evolution of the Knowledge Domain Timeline A Ex. Product Development Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 OBJECTIVE Timeline B Ex. Package Development Milestone (date) Generation 1 Generation 2 OBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE - Shows the change and evolution of a knowledge domain, and it’s sub-parts Timeline C Ex. Product Launch Milestone (date) Generation 1 Generation 2

32 Lineage Model Evolution of Specific Concepts or Objects
Evolution Drivers Pros and cons 1st Generation 2nd Generation Start Date – End Date Start Date – End Date Pros and cons More specific than the history model. 3rd Generation Start Date – End Date Evolution Drivers Pros and cons

33 Structure of a Knowledge Book
Table of Contents is the starting point Divided into sections accessed by links from a Table of Contents Many links within the models to additional explanation and related materials Elicitation style and approach of the expert drives the end product Books that have fewer models and more text explanation Books that have more models and more pictures and charts The knowledge book is interacted with, clicked through, rather than read in sequential order like a book This same methodology can produce a variety of end products….

34 Example of a Highly Visual Book
Activity, task and phenomenon models are heavily used here. Lots of links, pictures and graphs inserted.

35 Example of a Highly Textual Book
More reliant on the concept model. Added in lots of other textual information

36 Advantages of Knowledge Modeling
A picture is worth a thousand words Wide applicability – not case specific Ability to reflect a complex knowledge area Captures decision processes and ways of thinking Several models taken together for a complete depiction Extensive linking of models and content Integrates and incorporates information sources If a document exists incorporate rather than re-model Link to external content, reference it or add it verbatim within the book Ex. Technical Reports, photos, videos, books, journal articles

37 Socializing the Knowledge Book
Expert and/or Knowledge Book Recipient presents the book Expert and/or Knowledge Book Recipient submits the book as a Tech Report in R&D Suite Champion communicates the existence of the book Recipient updates the book Used as an element of formal training classes offered through Kraft University

38 Process Cheese Knowledge Book – 18 Months Later
Systematically shared via presentation shortly after completion Contents are generalized for training for non-technical internal audiences Verbatim excerpts for technical training Tool for new employee orientation Used by senior experts as a standard reference “I found it extremely enlightening because it highlighted and put structure on what we learn.  Often we create knowledge in seemingly random efforts, but this exercise help organize our areas of expertise and even highlight areas that could use more attention in the future” – Kraft expert

39 Additional Reading How to capitalize knowledge with the MASK method?
Nada Matta; Jean-Louis Ermine; Gerard Aubertin; Jean-Yves Trivin The MASK Method: English Documents from Jean-Louis Ermine

40 Knowledge Mapping For fast knowledge retention and transfer
Mind map of responsibilities and activities that make up a role Shows connections and interdependencies within a role Act as a training guide for managers who are new to their roles Identify knowledge that is unique to an individual Blueprint for future knowledge transfer

41 Sample Knowledge Map (Concise View)

42 Final Thoughts Keys to Success
Senior Management support and advocacy Must be business driven Make it engaging and rewarding for the experts Involvement in Knowledge Retention and Transfer Activity is the ultimate professional complement

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