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9.2 & 9.3 Plate Tectonics. Earth’s Major Plates The lithosphere is divided up into segments called plates The lithosphere is divided up into segments.

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Presentation on theme: "9.2 & 9.3 Plate Tectonics. Earth’s Major Plates The lithosphere is divided up into segments called plates The lithosphere is divided up into segments."— Presentation transcript:

1 9.2 & 9.3 Plate Tectonics

2 Earth’s Major Plates The lithosphere is divided up into segments called plates The lithosphere is divided up into segments called plates These plates continually move and change These plates continually move and change Move on average of 5 cm a year (about like your fingernail) Move on average of 5 cm a year (about like your fingernail) Movements are powered by unequal distributions of heat within the Earth Movements are powered by unequal distributions of heat within the Earth As they move they interact in various ways As they move they interact in various ways

3 Types of Plate Boundaries Divergent Divergent Convergent Convergent Transform Transform

4 Divergent Boundaries Spreading centers Spreading centers Occurs when 2 plates move apart Occurs when 2 plates move apart Results in upwelling of material form the mantle to create a new ocean floor Results in upwelling of material form the mantle to create a new ocean floor Example Example Part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge emerges from the ocean & splits Iceland in half Part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge emerges from the ocean & splits Iceland in half

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7 Divergent Boundaries Seafloor Spreading: the process where the ocean floor is extended when 2 plates move apart Seafloor Spreading: the process where the ocean floor is extended when 2 plates move apart Oceanic Ridge: underwater mountain range created from a divergent plate boundary Oceanic Ridge: underwater mountain range created from a divergent plate boundary Typically 1000 – 4000 km wide Typically 1000 – 4000 km wide Example: Mid-Atlantic Ridge (runs the length of the Atlantic Ocean separating N & S American Plates from the Eurasian & African Plates Example: Mid-Atlantic Ridge (runs the length of the Atlantic Ocean separating N & S American Plates from the Eurasian & African Plates

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9 Divergent Boundaries Rift Valley: deep faulted structure found along the axes of divergent plate boundaries. Rift Valley: deep faulted structure found along the axes of divergent plate boundaries. These can develop on land or on the ocean floor These can develop on land or on the ocean floor Narrow Narrow Runs the whole length of a mid-ocean ridge Runs the whole length of a mid-ocean ridge

10 Convergent Boundaries Boundary where 2 plates move together Boundary where 2 plates move together Results in oceanic lithosphere going beneath an overriding plate, and descending into the mantle Results in oceanic lithosphere going beneath an overriding plate, and descending into the mantle The India Plate pushing upward into Eurasian Plate and creating the Himalayan Mountains The India Plate pushing upward into Eurasian Plate and creating the Himalayan Mountains Plates carrying continental crust are currently moving toward each other and could one day collide and merge Plates carrying continental crust are currently moving toward each other and could one day collide and merge Boundary that once separated the 2 plates would disappear when the 2 plates join Boundary that once separated the 2 plates would disappear when the 2 plates join

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13 Convergent Boundaries Subduction zone: a destructive plate where oceanic crust is pushed down into the mantle under the second plate Subduction zone: a destructive plate where oceanic crust is pushed down into the mantle under the second plate Ocean-Ocean Boundary: when 2 oceanic pieces converge, 1 goes under the other. Volcanoes form under the ocean. Ocean-Ocean Boundary: when 2 oceanic pieces converge, 1 goes under the other. Volcanoes form under the ocean. Ocean – Continental Boundary: when the continental plate converges with an oceanic plate, the less dense continental plate floats. May cause volcanic eruptions. Ocean – Continental Boundary: when the continental plate converges with an oceanic plate, the less dense continental plate floats. May cause volcanic eruptions. Continental – Continental Boundary: when an oceanic plate is subducted under the continental. A volcanic arc forms Continental – Continental Boundary: when an oceanic plate is subducted under the continental. A volcanic arc forms

14 Ocean – Ocean Boundary

15 Ocean – Continental Boundary

16 Continental – Continental Boundary

17 Transform Fault Boundaries 2 plates are sliding past one another without production or destruction of the lithosphere 2 plates are sliding past one another without production or destruction of the lithosphere Example: San Andreas Fault is 800 km long and runs throughout California Example: San Andreas Fault is 800 km long and runs throughout California

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20 Plate Boundaries Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NtqumXEHK Us https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NtqumXEHK Us https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NtqumXEHK Us https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NtqumXEHK Us

21 Resources Prentice Hall Earth Science Prentice Hall Earth Science


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