45.2 The TidesTides are due to gravitational force on Earth from Moon – force on near side of Earth is greater than force on far side. Water can flow freely in response.
5The Sun has less effect, but it does modify the lunar tides.
6Tides tend to exert a “drag” force on Earth, slowing its rotation. This will continue until Earth rotates synchronously with the Moon, so that the same side of Earth always points toward the Moon.
7This has already happened with the Moon, whose near side is always toward Earth.
85.3 Atmospheres The blue curve shows the temperature at each altitude. Troposphere is where convection takes place – responsible for weather.
9Convection depends on warming of ground by the Sun.
10Ionosphere is ionized by solar radiation, and is a good conductor. Reflects radio waves in the AM range, but transparent to FM and TV.Ozone layer is between ionosphere and mesosphere; absorbs ultraviolet radiation.
11Discovery 5-1: Earth’s Growing Ozone Hole Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been damaging the ozone layer, resulting in ozone hole.
12Surface heating:Sunlight that is not reflected is absorbed by Earth’s surface, warming it.Surface re-radiates as infrared thermal radiation.Atmosphere absorbs some infrared, causing further heating.
14Discovery 5-2: The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming There is extremely strong evidence that Earth is getting warmer. The cause of this warming is a subject of intense debate; many scientists believe it is related to the corresponding increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide.
155.4 Interiors Seismic waves: Earthquakes produce both pressure and shear waves.Pressure waves will travel through both liquids and solids.Shear waves will not travel through liquids, as liquids do not resist shear forces.Wave speed depends on density of material.
16Can use pattern of reflections during earthquakes to deduce interior structure of Earth.
18Mantle is much less dense than core. Mantle is rocky; core is metallic, consisting of iron and nickel.Outer core is liquid; inner core is solid, due to pressure.Volcanic lava comes from mantle, allows analysis of composition.
195.5 Surface Activity on Earth Continental drift: Earth’s entire surface is covered with crustal plates, which can move independently.At plate boundaries, earthquakes and volcanoes can occur.
20Plates moving away from each other create rifts.
215.6 The Surface of the MoonThe Moon has large dark flat areas, due to lava flow, called maria (early observers thought they were oceans).
22The far side of the Moon is relatively unmarked.
23Crater formation: Meteoroid strikes the Moon, ejecting material; explosion ejects more material, leaving a crater.
24Craters are typically about 10 times as wide as the meteoroid creating them, and twice as deep. Rock is pulverized to a much greater depth.Most lunar craters date to at least 3.9 billion years ago; much less bombardment since then.
26Regolith: Thick layer of dust left by meteorite impacts The Moon is still being bombarded, especially by very small “micrometeoroids”; softens features.
275.7 MagnetospheresThe magnetosphere is the region around Earth where charged particles from the solar wind are trapped.
28These charged particles are trapped in areas called the Van Allen belts, where they spiral around the magnetic field lines.
29Near the poles, the Van Allen belts intersect the atmosphere Near the poles, the Van Allen belts intersect the atmosphere. The charged particles can escape; when they do, they create glowing light called an aurora.
305.8 History of the Earth–Moon System Current theory of the Moon’s origin: glancing impact of Mars-sized body on the still-liquid Earth caused enough material, mostly from the mantle, to be ejected to form the Moon.Computer model
31Four billion years ago, the Moon had many craters but no maria Four billion years ago, the Moon had many craters but no maria. By three billion years ago, the maria had formed. Now, they also are covered with craters.
32Radio communication is possible around the curvature of the Earth because of the ozone layer.troposphere.Stratosphere.ionosphere.
33The Earth and moon are both about the same distance from the sun, yet the Earth (on the average) is much warmer than the moon. why?The moon is smaller than the Earth.The moon's night is longer than the Earth's.The moon has almost no atmosphere compared with the Earth.The surface of the moon is, on the average, darker than the surface of the Earth.
34The insulating effect of the Earth's atmosphere is called: the coriolis effect.radiation blanketing.ozone infiltration.the greenhouse effect.
35Continental drift on the Earth is now thought to be caused by the steady flow of atmospheric winds in the atmosphere at lower altitudes.precession and nutation of the Earth's spin axis.circulation currents in the deep interior, causing slabs of the Earth's crust to move slowly.the forces of ocean tidal effects on the continental shelves around the land masses.
36The molecular oxygen in the present Earth's atmosphere was most probably produced by primitive life forms, relatively recently in geological time.from volcanic eruptions as the primitive Earth cooled down.at the formation of the Earth, and has always been present.from seawater, by out gassing.
37Which of the following is true about the Earth's magnetic field? It helps protect us from the solar wind.It is too weak to be of any assistance except in direction finding.It is aligned with the Earth's spin axis.It is responsible for the solar wind particles.
38Summary of Chapter 5Earth’s structure, from inside out: Core, mantle, crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere, magnetosphereTides are caused by gravitational effects of Moon and Sun.Atmosphere is mostly nitrogen and oxygen; thins rapidly with increasing altitude.Greenhouse effect keeps Earth warmer than it would otherwise be.
39Which of the following molecular species is vital in the greenhouse effect in planetary atmospheres? NitrogenOzoneCarbon dioxideOxygen
40Summary of Chapter 5, cont. Can study interior by studying seismic waves.Crust is made of plates that move independently.Movement at plate boundaries can cause earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain ranges, and rifts.New crust formed at rifts shows evidence of magnetic field reversals.Earth’s magnetic field traps charged particles from solar wind.
41Summary of Chapter 5, cont. Main surface features on Moon: maria, highlandsHeavily crateredNo atmosphere and large day–night temperature excursionsTidal interactions responsible for synchronicity of Moon’s orbit
42Summary of Chapter 5, cont. The Moon’s surface has both rocky and dusty material.There is evidence for volcanic activity.The Moon apparently formed as a result of a large object colliding with Earth.