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Chapter 1 Inside the Earth Plate Tectonics. Bell Ringer 1.1 Geologist have used what 2 main types of evidence to learn about Earth’s interior: Page F6-

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Inside the Earth Plate Tectonics. Bell Ringer 1.1 Geologist have used what 2 main types of evidence to learn about Earth’s interior: Page F6-"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Inside the Earth Plate Tectonics

2 Bell Ringer 1.1 Geologist have used what 2 main types of evidence to learn about Earth’s interior: Page F6- F7 1.direct evidence from rock samples 2.indirect evidence from seismic waves

3 Check for understanding The layers of the earth vary in what 4 ways? Page F9 1.Size 2.Composition 3.Temperature 4.Pressure

4 Check for understanding Crust The crust is a layer of solid rock that includes both dry land and the ocean floor. 1.The oceanic crust consists of what type of rock? basalt 2.The continents consists mainly of which type of rock? granite

5 Check for Understanding Mantle The mantle is made of rock that is very hot. It is divided into three layers based on their physical characteristics. What are the 3 layers of the mantle? 1.Lithosphere (also includes the crust) 2.Asthenosphere (softer, can bend like plastic) 3.The Lower Mantle (solid, extends to the core)

6 Check for Understanding Core The core is made mostly of the two metals iron and nickel. What are the two parts of the core? 1.Outer Core (molten metal) 2.Inner Core (solid metal)

7 Core and the magnetic field Outer core moves around the inner core creating a magnetic field. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WCeSP8b qY1w 3 minuteshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WCeSP8b qY1w https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jr7HNZg0lj U peach demonstration from The Core https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVkocdkc mAchttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jr7HNZg0lj U https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVkocdkc mAc

8 Bell Ringer 1.2 What are the four layers of the earth and what are they made of? Page F10 & notes 1.Crust solid rock 2.Mantle molten rock 3.Outer Core molten metal 4.Inner Core solid metal

9 Check for Understanding Heat Transfer What are the three types of heat transfer? Page F 15 1.Radiation 2.Conduction 3.Convection

10 Key Points Sunlight is radiation that warms the Earth. Radiation = no touching Another form of heat transfer by radiation would be the heat you feel from a fireplace.

11 Key Points Conduction is responsible for some of the heat transfer inside the Earth. Conduction = touching The heated particles of a substance transfer heat through contact with other particles in the substance.

12 Check for understanding Heat is transferred by the movement of currents within a fluid. Convection = movement Convection is caused by what 2 differences within a fluid? 1.temperature 2.Density (the amount of mass in a volume)

13 Key point When a liquid or gas is heated, it becomes less dense. The particles move faster and spread apart. When a liquid or gas is cooled, it becomes more dense. The particles move more slowly and settle together more closely. * Convection is caused by differences of temperature and density within a fluid.

14 Key point Gravity also plays a role in creating convection currents. Gravity pulls everything toward the Earth’s center. Denser material is pulled harder, forcing less dense material upward. (F=mg)

15 Check for Understanding Without heat what will happen to a convection current? F 16 It would stop.

16 Check for Understanding What causes convection currents inside the Earth? F17 Heat from the core and the mantle itself causes convection currents in the mantle. Convection currents in the outer core cause Earth’s magnetic field.

17 Bell ringer Where inside the earth would you find convection currents? 1.Asthenosphere (mantle) 2.Outer core

18 Drifting Continents https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p0dWF_3 PYh4 45 secondshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p0dWF_3 PYh4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ryrXAGY1d mE 1 minutehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ryrXAGY1d mE Mantle convection cells and continental drift

19 Check for Understanding Wegener’s hypothesis was that all continents were_____? Once joined in a single landmass and have since drifted apart. (Pangaea was the supercontinent) The idea that continents slowly moved over Earth’s surface is known as continental drift.

20 Check for Understanding What evidence did Wegener use to support his ideas about continental drift? 1.Land features (mountain ranges lining up) 2.Fossils (found in places now separate by oceans) 3.Evidence of climate change (fossils of tropical plants found in the Arctic Ocean)

21 Check for Understanding According to Wegener where and how do mountains form? At plate boundaries The folding of continents push up huge mountains. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HuSHOQ6gv5 Y Himalayas Forming 2 min.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HuSHOQ6gv5 Y https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXDYoCqwSb M types of boundarieshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXDYoCqwSb M

22 Why was Wegener’s hypothesis rejected? Wegener could not provide a satisfactory explanation for the force that pushes or pulls the continents. Wegener continued to collect evidence on continental drift and update his book He died in 1930 on an expedition to explore Greenland’s continental glacier.

23 Summary/ Retell https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5q8hzF9 VVE Continental Drift 12 minshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5q8hzF9 VVE Terms to know: Continental Drift, Pangea, Fossil https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oOi542f5p 0Y watch first 3 minutes. No narration, visual summary.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oOi542f5p 0Y

24 Bell Ringer Earth’s Continents have moved ? Shape of Continents ? Earth’s Continents have moved Fossil evidence Shape of Continents Climate evidence

25 Mid Ocean Ridges Mid-Ocean Ridge: An undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced. Figure 15 shows both Deep ocean trenches and Mid Ocean ridges. Sonar was used to map the mid- ocean ridges during WWII. What is unusual about Iceland? Iceland is a portion of the mid-ocean ridge that rose above sea level. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sgDM6m0l UGY (1:23) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sgDM6m0l UGY

26 Sea Floor Spreading F25 Harry Hess linked ocean floor ridge system to continental drift. Maybe Wegener was right! Continents do move. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GyMLlLxbfa4 (4 minutes) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GyMLlLxbfa4 Continually adds new material to the ocean floor. Begins at mid-ocean ridge, which forms a crack in the ocean crust. Molten material erupts through the valley, hardens to form the rock of the ocean floor.

27 Picture Understanding Youngest ocean crust is at the mid ocean ridge. Oldest ocean crust is at the edges, farthest from the ridge. Draw this in your notes.

28 Check for Understanding Why is the sea floor spreading? Convection currents in the mantle How did Harry Hess’ theory about sea floor spreading help prove Wegener’s continental drift theory? Ocean floors move like a conveyor belt, carrying the continents along with them.

29 Check for Understanding What evidence supports the theory of sea-floor spreading? 1.Molten material (along ridges) 2.Magnetic strips 3.Drilling Samples (age of rocks)

30 Exit Ticket Put these events in order to create a cause/effect chain. Heat from the core and mantle Convection currents in the mantle Sea Floor Spreading Continental Drift

31 Exit Ticket Put these events in order to create a cause/effect chain. Heat from the core and mantle Convection currents in the mantle Sea Floor Spreading Continental Drift


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