8 EarthquakesThe shaking and trembling that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth’s surface.Releases MASSIVE amounts of energyGenerates seismic waves
9 Compression Definition: Squeezing Effect on Rock: Makes rock layers thicker and shorterAssociated Fault Type: Reverse FaultAssociated Plate Boundary:Convergent Boundary
10 Tension Definition: Pulling apart Effect on Rock: Stretches making rocks longer and thinnerAssociated Fault Type: Normal FaultAssociated Plate Boundary:Divergent Boundary
11 Shear Definition: Moving in opposite directions Effect on Rock: Think of shears or scissorsEffect on Rock:Stress distorts the shapes of rocks.Associated Fault Type: Strike-SlipAssociated Plate Boundary:Transform
12 Faults A fault is a break in the lithosphere Usually occur along plate boundaries, where the motions of plates compress, pull or shear the crust so much that the crust breaks.3 Types of FaultsStrike Slip FaultNormal FaultReverse Fault
13 Hanging WallAbove the fault plane.Hanging (head) WallFoot Wall
14 Foot WallBelow the fault planeHanging (head) WallFoot Wall
15 Which Wall’s Which?Hanging WallLanternFoot WallPath
16 What about the surfaces causes friction? Friction along FaultsHow rocks move determines how much friction there is between opposite sides of the faultFriction: a force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across anotherWhat about the surfaces causes friction?It exist because surfaces are not perfectly smooth.
17 Normal Fault Force: Tension (diverging) Hanging wall: Moves down (with gravity)
21 Landforms Topography: determined by its elevation, relief and landform All landforms have elevation and reliefA landform region is an area where the topography is similar.
22 ElevationThe height above sea-level on Earth’s surface.
23 ReliefThe difference between the highest point of elevation and the lowest parts of an areahave high relieflow relief.MountainsPlains
24 Plateaus Have high elevation and relief Perfectly smooth on topMay be really thick (1,500m), streams or rivers can cut through.
25 PlainsFlat or gently rolling land with low relief and varying elevation.Depends on location…Coastal Plains have low elevation at or near sea level along the coast.Interior Plains are away from the coast, causing varied elevation.
26 Mountains A landform with high elevation and relief Mountain Ranges are groups of mountains that are closely related in shape, structure and age.