Presentation on theme: "FINAL REVIEW: ROCKS & MINERALS"— Presentation transcript:
1 FINAL REVIEW: ROCKS & MINERALS 4. Igneous rocks are formed by:(1) weathering (3) volcanic activity(2) cementation (4) sedimentation1. Which statement is true of all rocks?(1) Rocks contain organic material.(2) Rocks contain fossils.(3) Rocks are composed of minerals.(4) Rocks are formed in layers.5. If shell fragments are found in a rock sample, it is most likely that the rock formed:(1) on a mountain slope (3) on a glacier(2) from magma (4) in shallow water2. Weathering and erosion of Earth’s crust areprimarily caused by(1) gravity (3) evaporation(2) volcanic activity (4) sedimentation3. The diagram below shows a rock sampleand an identification key.6. In which type of rock are fossils generally found?(1) igneous (3) sedimentary(2) metamorphic (4) volcanic7. Dust and ash entering the atmosphere as a resultof volcanic eruptions can affect Earth’s(1) tidal activity (3) weather and climate(2) rotation and revolution (4) orbital shapeNatural CementKeyShell fragment Feldspar fragmentQuartz fragment8. Rocks are classified as igneous, metamorphic,or sedimentary according to:(1) their color (3) how they formed(2) their shape (4) the minerals they containThis rock sample would best be classified as(1) volcanic (3) metamorphic(2) sedimentary (4) igneous9. Rocks formed by heat & pressure are:(1) igneous (3) metamorphic(2) sedimentary (4) plutonic
2 10. The chart below compares three types of rocks 10. The chart below compares three types of rocks. The first column gives the rock classification.Which heading best describes the information provided in the second column?(1) Minerals in Rocks(2) The Value of Rocks(3) Method of Rock Formation(4) The Time Rocks Take to FormRock Classification???Igneousmelting and solidification of magmaSedimentarymechanical, chemical, or organic processesMetamorphicheat and/or pressure11. The diagram below shows three stages in the formation of a beach.Waves hitting on cliff Cliff eroding Beach DevelopingA B CWhich process is mostly responsible for the breaking down of the rock cliff into sand-sized sediment?(1) weathering (3) folding(2) faulting (4) precipitation
3 13. The diagram below shows a penny scratching the surface of the mineral calcite.12. The diagram below shows the rock cycle in Earth’s crust. Use this rock cycle diagram to fill in the rock types and method of formation that have been left blank in the chart below.Direction ofpenny movementScratchCalciteWhich physical property of the calcite isbeing tested? (1) streak (3) melting point(2) hardness (4) reaction to acid14. The way a mineral reflects light is its:(1) color (3) luster(2) streak (4) densityRock TypeMethod of Formationmelting and solidificationdeposition, compaction,& cementationMetamorphic15. All rocks are made of one or more:(1) sediments (3) minerals(2) pebbles (4) fossils16. The best way to identify a mineral isby its color.(1) True (2) FalseIGNEOUSSEDIMENTARYHEAT & PRESSURE
4 17. The cross section below shows sedimentary rock layers containing fossils.19. The drawing below shows the original size & shape of a rock sample before it is thrown into a rapidly moving stream.Which drawing best shows the actual size and shapethe rock will have after being carried several hundredmiles downstream and deposited?(1) (3)(2) (4)Assuming that these rock layers havenot been overturned, which fossil is inthe layer that was formed most recently?(1)(2)(3)(4)
5 18. Four identical sand castles are shown below. Which sand castle will most likely be erodedFastest by the wind?20. The diagrams below show a natural process thatweathers rock.Which statement best explains why this process results in weathering?(1) Frozen water acts as a solute.(2) Water expands when it freezes.(3) The mass of water increases when it freezes.(4) Frozen water dissolves most types of rocks.21. The diagram below shows stages in the development of a certain landscape.When did erosion become the most dominant process in the development of the landscape shown in stage 4?(1) at stage (2) between stages 2 and (2) at stage (4) between stages 3 and 4
6 Sap is a substance secreted by some trees. Many years ago, *Base your answers to questions 22 and 23 on the reading passage and diagram below:Sap is a substance secreted by some trees. Many years ago,plants and small animals were caught in the sap on the trees.Sap hardens and turns into a clear substance called amber.The plants or animals are preserved as fossils in the amber.Part of a plant preserved in amber is shown to the right.AmberPlantTO PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUTEARTHS PAST22. Explain why fossils are important to scientists. ___________________________________________23. Explain why plant fossils found in amber, such as the one shown, are not usually found in volcanic rocks.______________________________________________________________________________________VOLCANIC ROCKS ARE IGNEOUS & THE FOSSILS WOULD MELT AWAY.24. The diagram below shows a cross section of rock layers in Earth’s crust.The forces shown in the diagram caused the rock layers to:(1) fault (2) fold (3) form (4) expand
7 25. The cross section below shows fossils and the rock layers in which they are found. Crustal movement has not displacedthe rock layers.Early HorsesWhich fossil is considered the oldest in the cross section shown?(1) armored fish (3) early horses(2) dinosaurs (4) trilobitesDinosaursArmored FishTrilobites26. The diagram below shows a method for determining a physical property of a mineral.The results are shown for two minerals, galena and calcite.GalenaCalciteWhich property of the galena and calcite is indicated by the color of the powder each leaves on the ceramic tile?(1) streak(2) hardness(3) reaction to an acid(4) reaction to a solventBlack powderCeramic tileWhite powder
8 BUBBLES OF CARBON DIOXIDE *Base your answers to questions on the diagram below, which shows how crushed limestone in a test tube reacts when acid is added.30. Which two processes could result in the formationof high mountains with well-rounded peaks?(1) volcanic eruptions and global warming(2) earthquakes and tidal activity(3) collision of crustal plates and erosiongreenhouse gases & weathering31. A diagram of the rock cycle is shown below.27. List one observation that shows a chemicalchange is occurring in the diagram._____________________________________28. What environmental problem in New YorkState makes limestone a poor choice to use onthe outside of a building?______________________________________29. Which information would be most helpfulto someone trying to identify a mineral sample?(1) location and mass of the sample(2) shape and texture of the sample(3) hardness and streak of the sample(4) color and size of the sampleBUBBLES OF CARBON DIOXIDEa-b. Identify two processes most directly involved in the formation of an igneous rock. ___________________________________________c. What type of rock forms from heat & pressure?d-e. Identify two processes required for the formation ofa sedimentary rock.HEAVY POLLUTIONMELTING, COOLINGMETAMORPHICWEATHERING, EROSION
9 32. The diagram below shows tilted rock layers 32. The diagram below shows tilted rock layers. The dashed lines represent missing parts of the rock layers.35. The graph below shows the percentage of five mineralsfound in a sample of the igneous rock granite.Determine the percentage oforthoclase feldspar in thissample of granite.%Which process is most likely responsible for the removal of the missing parts of the rock layers? (1) erosion (3) earthquakes(2) deposition (4) faulting3933. The table below shows two physical propertiesof the minerals quartz and amphibole.36. The diagram below shows a rock suspended above anoverflow container filled with water up to the overflow spout.A graduated cylinder is positioned next to the container tocollect water that comes out of the overflow spout.Which property of the rockcan be directly determinedwhen the rock is placed inthe over-flow container?(1) mass (3) volume(2) density (4) hardnessSelect the physical property from the table thatcan distinguish quartz from amphibole &describea procedure that can be used to test this property.Physical property: __________________________Procedure: _______________________________STREAKRUB MINERAL ON PLATE
10 FOSSILS OF DINOSAURS HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED IN ROCK & TAR PITS. 37. Limestone is a sedimentary rock and marble is a metamorphic rock. Even though limestone and marble limestone and marble have the same chemical makeup, they are classiﬁed as different rocks because they:were formed from different fossilsformed at different times(3) took different amounts of time to form(4) formed by different methods34. In which type of rock is the fossil imprint ofa fern leaf most likely to be found?(1) igneous (3) sedimentary(2) metamorphic (4) volcanic38. Which physical property is used to identify amineral based on its resistance to being scratched?(1) hardness (3) color(2) density (4) streak39. Which material is primarily a mixture ofweathered rock and organic matter?(1) minerals (3) ocean water(2) soil (4) seashells41. The diagram below shows a portion ofEarth’s crust.40. Scientists infer that a giant asteroid crashed intoEarth approximately 65 million years ago, contributingto the extinction of dinosaurs and many other life-forms. Identify one form of evidence scientists havefound that implies dinosaurs existed in the past.______________________________________________The formation of the rock fragments was mostlikely a result of(1) cooling (3) melting(2) folding (4) weatheringFOSSILS OF DINOSAURS HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED IN ROCK & TAR PITS.
11 42. Explain why hardness is a valuable property of some minerals. *Base your answers to questions 42 through 44 on the information below.Gems & Minerals: There are about 4,000 types of minerals on Earth. Of these, only about 15 are used to make gems. Gems are minerals that may have been cut & polished to make them sparkle. The diamond is the hardest natural substance we know. Diamonds form deep underground at very high temperature & pressure conditions caused by the overlying thick layers of rock that squeeze the carbon atoms into a tight, strong crystal. Diamonds might grow under these conditions for 1 billion to 3 billion years & therefore are considered the oldest gemstone. Only about 20 percent of diamonds are made into jewels. Because they are so hard, most diamonds are used to make tools such as dental drills & metal cutters.42. Explain why hardness is a valuable property of some minerals.________________________________________________________________________________________43. Identify one physical property, other than hardness, that may add to the beauty of a gemstone._______________________________________________________________________________________THEY ARE USED TO MAKE TOOLS & OTHER USEFULPRODUCTS BECAUSE OF THEIR HARDNESS.ITS COLOR, LUSTER & CRYSTAL SHAPE.,44. When diamonds are shipped to jewelry stores, they are individually wrapped in paper. Explain why the paperis needed to protect each diamond from damage._______________________________________________________________________________________BECAUSE THEY CAN SCRATCH EACH OTHER.
12 45. The sequence below occurs over a long period of geologic time. The sequence shows the steps involved in the formation ofan element (3) a fault(2) an igneous rock (4) a fossil
13 RUB MINERAL SAMPLE ON A STREAK PLATE & OBSERVE THE POWDER. *Base your answers to questions 46 through 48 on the table of mineral properties below.46. Identify the mineral in the table that is hard, has a black streak, and has no reaction with acid.______________________________47. Compared to the chalcopyrite, which property of galena is different? ______________________________48. Describe the test for determining the streak of most minerals. ______________________________HORNBLENDEGALENA IS SOFTRUB MINERAL SAMPLE ON A STREAK PLATE & OBSERVE THE POWDER.