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FINAL REVIEW: ROCKS & MINERALS 1. Which statement is true of all rocks? (1) Rocks contain organic material. (2) Rocks contain fossils. (3) Rocks are composed.

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Presentation on theme: "FINAL REVIEW: ROCKS & MINERALS 1. Which statement is true of all rocks? (1) Rocks contain organic material. (2) Rocks contain fossils. (3) Rocks are composed."— Presentation transcript:

1 FINAL REVIEW: ROCKS & MINERALS 1. Which statement is true of all rocks? (1) Rocks contain organic material. (2) Rocks contain fossils. (3) Rocks are composed of minerals. (4) Rocks are formed in layers. 4. Igneous rocks are formed by: (1) weathering (3) volcanic activity (2) cementation (4) sedimentation Natural Cement 2. Weathering and erosion of Earth’s crust are primarily caused by (1) gravity (3) evaporation (2) volcanic activity (4) sedimentation 3. The diagram below shows a rock sample and an identification key. Key This rock sample would best be classified as (1) volcanic (3) metamorphic (2) sedimentary (4) igneous Shell fragment Feldspar fragment Quartz fragment 5. If shell fragments are found in a rock sample, it is most likely that the rock formed: (1) on a mountain slope (3) on a glacier (2) from magma (4) in shallow water 6. In which type of rock are fossils generally found? (1) igneous (3) sedimentary (2) metamorphic (4) volcanic 7. Dust and ash entering the atmosphere as a result of volcanic eruptions can affect Earth’s (1) tidal activity (3) weather and climate (2) rotation and revolution (4) orbital shape 8. Rocks are classified as igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary according to: (1) their color (3) how they formed (2) their shape (4) the minerals they contain 9. Rocks formed by heat & pressure are: (1) igneous (3) metamorphic (2) sedimentary (4) plutonic

2 Rock Classification ??? Igneous melting and solidification of magma Sedimentary mechanical, chemical, or organic processes Metamorphic heat and/or pressure 10. The chart below compares three types of rocks. The first column gives the rock classification. Which heading best describes the information provided in the second column? (1) Minerals in Rocks (2) The Value of Rocks (3) Method of Rock Formation (4) The Time Rocks Take to Form 11. The diagram below shows three stages in the formation of a beach. Waves hitting on cliff Cliff eroding Beach Developing A B C Which process is mostly responsible for the breaking down of the rock cliff into sand-sized sediment? (1) weathering (3) folding (2) faulting (4) precipitation

3 13. The diagram below shows a penny scratching the surface of the mineral calcite. Direction of penny movement Calcite Scratch Which physical property of the calcite is being tested? (1) streak (3) melting point (2) hardness (4) reaction to acid 14. The way a mineral reflects light is its: (1) color (3) luster (2) streak (4) density 15. All rocks are made of one or more: (1) sediments (3) minerals (2) pebbles (4) fossils 16. The best way to identify a mineral is by its color. (1) True (2) False 12. The diagram below shows the rock cycle in Earth’s crust. Use this rock cycle diagram to fill in the rock types and method of formation that have been left blank in the chart below. Rock Type Method of Formation melting and solidification deposition, compaction, & cementation Metamorphic IGNEOUS SEDIMENTARY HEAT & PRESSURE

4 19. The drawing below shows the original size & shape of a rock sample before it is thrown into a rapidly moving stream. Which drawing best shows the actual size and shape the rock will have after being carried several hundred miles downstream and deposited? (1) (3) (2) (4) 17. The cross section below shows sedimentary rock layers containing fossils. Assuming that these rock layers have not been overturned, which fossil is in the layer that was formed most recently? (1)(3) (4)(2)

5 20. The diagrams below show a natural process that weathers rock. Which statement best explains why this process results in weathering? (1) Frozen water acts as a solute. (2) Water expands when it freezes. (3) The mass of water increases when it freezes. (4) Frozen water dissolves most types of rocks. 18. Four identical sand castles are shown below. Which sand castle will most likely be eroded Fastest by the wind? When did erosion become the most dominant process in the development of the landscape shown in stage 4? (1) at stage 1 (2) between stages 2 and 3 (2) at stage 2 (4) between stages 3 and The diagram below shows stages in the development of a certain landscape.

6 Amber Plant Sap is a substance secreted by some trees. Many years ago, plants and small animals were caught in the sap on the trees. Sap hardens and turns into a clear substance called amber. The plants or animals are preserved as fossils in the amber. Part of a plant preserved in amber is shown to the right. *Base your answers to questions 22 and 23 on the reading passage and diagram below: 22. Explain why fossils are important to scientists. ___________________________________________ 23. Explain why plant fossils found in amber, such as the one shown, are not usually found in volcanic rocks. ______________________________________________________________________________________ The forces shown in the diagram caused the rock layers to: (1) fault (2) fold (3) form (4) expand The diagram below shows a cross section of rock layers in Earth’s crust. TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT EARTHS PAST VOLCANIC ROCKS ARE IGNEOUS & THE FOSSILS WOULD MELT AWAY.

7 Which fossil is considered the oldest in the cross section shown? (1) armored fish (3) early horses (2) dinosaurs (4) trilobites 25. The cross section below shows fossils and the rock layers in which they are found. Crustal movement has not displaced the rock layers. Early Horses Dinosaurs Armored Fish Trilobites 26. The diagram below shows a method for determining a physical property of a mineral. The results are shown for two minerals, galena and calcite. Which property of the galena and calcite is indicated by the color of the powder each leaves on the ceramic tile? (1) streak (2) hardness (3) reaction to an acid (4) reaction to a solvent Galena Calcite Black powder White powder Ceramic tile

8 30. Which two processes could result in the formation of high mountains with well-rounded peaks? (1) volcanic eruptions and global warming (2) earthquakes and tidal activity (3) collision of crustal plates and erosion (4)greenhouse gases & weathering 31. A diagram of the rock cycle is shown below. a-b. Identify two processes most directly involved in the formation of an igneous rock. ___________________________________________ c. What type of rock forms from heat & pressure? ___________________________________________ d-e. Identify two processes required for the formation of a sedimentary rock. ___________________________________________ *Base your answers to questions on the diagram below, which shows how crushed limestone in a test tube reacts when acid is added. 27. List one observation that shows a chemical change is occurring in the diagram. _____________________________________ 28. What environmental problem in New York State makes limestone a poor choice to use on the outside of a building? ______________________________________ 29. Which information would be most helpful to someone trying to identify a mineral sample? (1) location and mass of the sample (2) shape and texture of the sample (3) hardness and streak of the sample (4) color and size of the sample BUBBLES OF CARBON DIOXIDE HEAVY POLLUTIONMELTING, COOLING METAMORPHIC WEATHERING, EROSION

9 35. The graph below shows the percentage of five minerals found in a sample of the igneous rock granite. Determine the percentage of orthoclase feldspar in this sample of granite. % 36. The diagram below shows a rock suspended above an overflow container filled with water up to the overflow spout. A graduated cylinder is positioned next to the container to collect water that comes out of the overflow spout. Which property of the rock can be directly determined when the rock is placed in the over-flow container? (1) mass (3) volume (2) density (4) hardness 32. The diagram below shows tilted rock layers. The dashed lines represent missing parts of the rock layers. Which process is most likely responsible for the removal of the missing parts of the rock layers? (1) erosion (3) earthquakes (2) deposition (4) faulting 33. The table below shows two physical properties of the minerals quartz and amphibole. Select the physical property from the table that can distinguish quartz from amphibole &describe a procedure that can be used to test this property. Physical property: __________________________ Procedure: _______________________________ STREAK RUB MINERAL ON PLATE 39

10 37. Limestone is a sedimentary rock and marble is a metamorphic rock. Even though limestone and marble limestone and marble have the same chemical makeup, they are classified as different rocks because they: (1)were formed from different fossils (2)formed at different times (3) took different amounts of time to form (4) formed by different methods 34. In which type of rock is the fossil imprint of a fern leaf most likely to be found? (1) igneous (3) sedimentary (2) metamorphic (4) volcanic 41. The diagram below shows a portion of Earth’s crust. The formation of the rock fragments was most likely a result of (1) cooling (3) melting (2) folding (4) weathering 38. Which physical property is used to identify a mineral based on its resistance to being scratched? (1) hardness (3) color (2) density (4) streak 39. Which material is primarily a mixture of weathered rock and organic matter? (1) minerals (3) ocean water (2) soil (4) seashells 40. Scientists infer that a giant asteroid crashed into Earth approximately 65 million years ago, contributing to the extinction of dinosaurs and many other life- forms. Identify one form of evidence scientists have found that implies dinosaurs existed in the past. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ FOSSILS OF DINOSAURS HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED IN ROCK & TAR PITS.

11 Gems & Minerals: There are about 4,000 types of minerals on Earth. Of these, only about 15 are used to make gems. Gems are minerals that may have been cut & polished to make them sparkle. The diamond is the hardest natural substance we know. Diamonds form deep underground at very high temperature & pressure conditions caused by the overlying thick layers of rock that squeeze the carbon atoms into a tight, strong crystal. Diamonds might grow under these conditions for 1 billion to 3 billion years & therefore are considered the oldest gemstone. Only about 20 percent of diamonds are made into jewels. Because they are so hard, most diamonds are used to make tools such as dental drills & metal cutters. *Base your answers to questions 42 through 44 on the information below. 42. Explain why hardness is a valuable property of some minerals. ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ 43. Identify one physical property, other than hardness, that may add to the beauty of a gemstone. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 44. When diamonds are shipped to jewelry stores, they are individually wrapped in paper. Explain why the paper is needed to protect each diamond from damage. _______________________________________________________________________________________ THEY ARE USED TO MAKE TOOLS & OTHER USEFUL PRODUCTS BECAUSE OF THEIR HARDNESS. ITS COLOR, LUSTER & CRYSTAL SHAPE., BECAUSE THEY CAN SCRATCH EACH OTHER.

12 45. The sequence below occurs over a long period of geologic time. The sequence shows the steps involved in the formation of (1)an element (3) a fault (2) an igneous rock (4) a fossil

13 *Base your answers to questions 46 through 48 on the table of mineral properties below. 46. Identify the mineral in the table that is hard, has a black streak, and has no reaction with acid. ______________________________ 47. Compared to the chalcopyrite, which property of galena is different? ______________________________ 48. Describe the test for determining the streak of most minerals. ______________________________ HORNBLENDE GALENA IS SOFT RUB MINERAL SAMPLE ON A STREAK PLATE & OBSERVE THE POWDER.

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