Presentation on theme: "Plate Tectonics Objective: describe the theory of plate tectonics."— Presentation transcript:
Plate Tectonics Objective: describe the theory of plate tectonics
Plate Tectonics The crust is embedded into the lithosphere and broken into plates
Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics: continents are embedded in lithospheric plates, as the lithosphere moves on the asthenosphere, the continents also move.
What makes plates move? The heat of the mantle forms a process called Convection. As the magma in the mantle that is close to the core heats up, it rises towards the surface of the Earth. When it gets near the surface it cools and sinks back down again, gets re-heated and the process repeats
Why do plates move? This movement of magma into the asthenosphere is what causes the lithosphere and plates to move!
Develop a Theory Come up with a theory to explain the next 3 pieces of evidence…
Evidence #1 The continents look like they fit together.
Evidence #2 Some fossils are only found in isolated parts of the world all the way across the oceans.
Evidence #3 Rock layers and structures match in continents separated by the oceans.
What does this evidence support about how the world looked 250 million years ago? Why/What caused continents to move?
Continental Drift Theory Continental drift theory is the movement of the continents It states that 250 million years ago the continents were one super continent and have since drifted apart The super continent is called Pangaea
The Evidence: While we cannot go back 250 million years and observe the position of the continents (since we don’t have a time machine), here is the evidence that supports continental drift theory:
Evidence for continental drift 1.The continents appear to fit together 2. Fossils of the same animals and plants are found on different continents 3. Matching rock formations are found on different continents
Plate Boundaries The edge of a plate where it meets another plate is called a Plate Boundary There are three things that can happen at plate boundaries: http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/ content/visualizations/es0804/es0804page01.cfm?cha pter_no=08
1: Plates can move apart- Divergent Animation! http://scign.jpl.nasa.gov/ learn/plate4.htm
Divergent: This happens at Mid-ocean ridges, it causes the sea to get wider. (Sea-Floor Spreading) Causes earthquakes, volcanoes, rift valleys, ridges. Ex: the Mid-Atlantic ridge, the East Pacific Rise
Transform: Plates slide past each other Causes earthquakes Ex: San Andreas Fault, North Anatolian Fault http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/t erc/content/visualizations/es0804/es0804page01.c fm?chapter_no=08
3) Plates move towards each other- Convergent Three types of convergent boundaries- a)Ocean-ocean subduction b)Ocean-continent subduction c)Continent-continent collision Subduction means one plate diving under another plate
A: Ocean-ocean subduction Occurs deep in the ocean. Causes deep-sea trenches, earthquakes, volcanic island arcs Ex: Indonesian Islands
B: Ocean-continent subduction An oceanic plate dives under a continental plate Causes deep-sea trenches along continents, earthquakes, volcanoes on the edge of a continent Ex: Western coast of South America http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/e s0804/es0804page01.cfm?chapter_no=08
C: Continent-Continent Collision Two continents run in to each other. Causes mountains to rise (mountain building), earthquakes Ex: Himalayas- India crashed in to Asia! http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0808/es0 808page01.cfm?chapter_no=08
Questions (due Monday!): Section review 8.2- pg 179 1: Explain how new oceanic crust is formed at a divergent boundary. 2: Describe two different types of subduction boundaries. Use the plate boundary map on pages 712-713 to identify an example of each type. 3: Describe what happens at a collision boundary. Identify a collision boundary on the map on pages 712-713. 4: Describe the movement of plates at a transform boundary, and give some examples. 5: What types of plate boundaries are not shown in the diagram on pages 174-175? 6: Critical Thinking: Explain how the densities of oceanic crust and continental crust influence what happens when an oceanic plate converges with a continental plate. 7: Geography: In 2001, a large earthquake related to the movements of two plates occurred about 20 kilometers northeast of Olympia, Washington. Use the map on pages 712-713 to identify the plates and the type of boundary they share.