Presentation on theme: "Objective: describe the theory of plate tectonics"— Presentation transcript:
1Objective: describe the theory of plate tectonics
2Plate TectonicsThe crust is embedded into the lithosphere and broken into plates
3Plate TectonicsPlate tectonics: continents are embedded in lithospheric plates, as the lithosphere moves on the asthenosphere, the continents also move.
4What makes plates move?The heat of the mantle forms a process called Convection.As the magma in the mantle that is close to the core heats up, it rises towards the surface of the Earth.When it gets near the surface it cools and sinks back down again, gets re-heated and the process repeats
5Why do plates move?This movement of magma into the asthenosphere is what causes the lithosphere and plates to move!
6Develop a TheoryCome up with a theory to explain the next 3 pieces of evidence…
7Evidence #1The continents look like they fit together.
8Evidence #2Some fossils are only found in isolated parts of the world all the way across the oceans.
9Evidence #3Rock layers and structures match in continents separated by the oceans.
10What does this evidence support about how the world looked 250 million years ago? Why/What caused continents to move?
11Continental Drift Theory Continental drift theory is the movement of the continentsIt states that 250 million years ago the continents were one super continent and have since drifted apartThe super continent is called Pangaea
14The Evidence:While we cannot go back 250 million years and observe the position of the continents (since we don’t have a time machine), here is the evidence that supports continental drift theory:
15Evidence for continental drift The continents appear to fit together2. Fossils of the same animals and plants are found on different continents3. Matching rock formations are found on different continents4th piece of evidence: Ancient Matching Climates. Ex: matching land areas showing evidence of ancient glaciation are now located near the equator.
20Plate BoundariesThe edge of a plate where it meets another plate is called a Plate BoundaryThere are three things that can happen at plate boundaries:content/visualizations/es0804/es0804page01.cfm?cha pter_no=08
211: Plates can move apart- Divergent Animation!learn/plate4.htm
22Divergent:This happens at Mid-ocean ridges, it causes the sea to get wider. (Sea-Floor Spreading)Causes earthquakes, volcanoes, rift valleys, ridges.Ex: the Mid-Atlantic ridge, the East Pacific Rise
24Transform: Plates slide past each other Causes earthquakes Ex: San Andreas Fault, North Anatolian Faulterc/content/visualizations/es0804/es0804page01.c fm?chapter_no=08
253) Plates move towards each other- Convergent Three types of convergent boundaries-Ocean-ocean subductionOcean-continent subductionContinent-continent collisionSubduction means one plate diving under another plate
26A: Ocean-ocean subduction Occurs deep in the ocean.Causes deep-sea trenches, earthquakes, volcanic island arcsEx: Indonesian Islands
28B: Ocean-continent subduction An oceanic plate dives under a continental plateCauses deep-sea trenches along continents, earthquakes, volcanoes on the edge of a continentEx: Western coast of South Americas0804/es0804page01.cfm?chapter_no=08
32Questions (due Monday!): Section review 8.2- pg 1791: Explain how new oceanic crust is formed at a divergent boundary.2: Describe two different types of subduction boundaries. Use the plate boundary map on pages to identify an example of each type.3: Describe what happens at a collision boundary. Identify a collision boundary on the map on pages4: Describe the movement of plates at a transform boundary, and give some examples.5: What types of plate boundaries are not shown in the diagram on pages ?6: Critical Thinking: Explain how the densities of oceanic crust and continental crust influence what happens when an oceanic plate converges with a continental plate.7: Geography: In 2001, a large earthquake related to the movements of two plates occurred about 20 kilometers northeast of Olympia, Washington. Use the map on pages to identify the plates and the type of boundary they share.