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Structure of the earth layered sphere inner core: outer core mantle crust continental - felsic oceanic - mafic.

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Presentation on theme: "Structure of the earth layered sphere inner core: outer core mantle crust continental - felsic oceanic - mafic."— Presentation transcript:


2 Structure of the earth layered sphere inner core: outer core mantle crust continental - felsic oceanic - mafic

3 plate tectonics surface is made of plates that move around and bump into each other effects earthquakes volcanoes mountains

4 rocks and minerals minerals: building blocks of rocks rocks rock cycle how rocks form how they relate to each other igneous sedimentary metamorphic

5 economic minerology resources & reserves - chapt 8 ore economic deposit (includes host material) examples gold - 0001% (10 ppm) iron - 20% metals - uses and distribution - p 359 nonmetals strategic minerals

6 mineral extraction mining techniques processing effects response conservation recycling substitution

7 geologic hazards outlook prediction - date, time, magnitude forecast - likelihood of occurrence, magnitude

8 earthquakes faults - energy stored and released effects magnitude & intensity human impact prediction and forecast

9 volcanoes products lava ash gas effects human impact - none known prediction and forecast

10 floods river leaves its banks effects human impact increased drainage basin efficiency floods are higher and sooner prediction and forecast

11 landslides slope moves downhill human impact oversteepen undercut add weight add water prediction and forecast

12 the coast high energy environment flooding and erosion

13 Weather & Climate weather physical conditions of the atmosphere at a given place and time may rapidly fluctuate climate long-term weather patterns average conditions fluctuates gradually

14 atmosphere “ocean of air” composition - table p 375 N 2 - 78% O 2 - 21% Ar - 1% CO 2 - 0035% H 2 O - 0 to 4%

15 development of the atmosphere early - 4.5 to 3.5 BYA emitted by volcanoes no free oxygen 3.5 to 1.8 BYA water forms oceans CO 2 dissolves into the water life converts the CO 2 to organic material, rock, and O 2 oxygen intermittently present in ocean 18 BYA to present O 2 gradually increased 2% of atmosphere about 550 MYA

16 layered - fig p 366 troposphere 75% of atmosphere by mass stratosphere ozone mesosphere thermosphere lower part - ionosphere

17 sun’s energy distribution - fig p 377 work energy changes from high quality to low quality (infrared) “greenhouse” reradiated from surface to clouds and back cycling of energy between surface and atmosphere stored in oceans and atmosphere by water used by plants moves as wind moves as ocean currents

18 weather driving forces sun : uneven distribution of heat equator get more energy/unit area earth’s rotation coriolis effect - deflects moving air effects circulation patterns - fig p 379 convection cells - fig p 378 jet streams - fig p 380 frontal weather - fig p 380 cyclonic storms - fig p 382 hurricanes & typhoons seasonal winds - fig p 383 monsoons

19 weather modification can’t do much initiation of precipitation

20 El Nino/ Southern Oscillation figure - p 386 periodic, dramatic change in weather patterns related to equatorial winds and ocean currents in the Pacific Ocean effects: shift in rainfall, alteration of ocean currents

21 climate change trends & patterns - fig p 384 rate causes greenhouse gases - fig p 387 moving continents natural & human effects - figs p 388 & 389 movement of climatic zones changing rainfall patterns changing lengths of seasons more dramatic weather? solutions?

22 Air pollution foul, unclean air 120 million metric tons of air pollution/yr released in US

23 sources natural esp. in rural areas volcanoes sea spray forest fires plants viruses dust methane (from digestion) human up to 90% of total in cities pollutant type primary - released as harmful secondary - modified in the air source type fugitive point

24 conventional/criteria pollutants regulated in Clean Air Act of 1970 figs p 399, 400, 401 sulfur compounds nitrogen compounds carbon oxides particulates VOCs (hydrocarbons) photochemical oxidants metals and halogens (including Pb)

25 unconventional/non-criteria pollutants regulated asbestos PCBs aesthetic degradation noise odor light

26 indoor concentrated smoking asbestos plastic emissions radon chemicals indoor fires

27 climate, topography, and atmo. processes temp inversions - fig p 405 urban heat islands & dust domes long range transport - fig p 406 stratospheric ozone - fig p 406 formation oxygen altered by UV destruction - fig p 407 by UV by Cl from CFCs

28 effects of air pollution types of effects chronic vs acute toxic diseases hormonal synergistic human health plant pathology acid deposition - fig p 410 visibility

29 control of air pollution move sources away taller smoke stacks particulate removal - fig p 413 sulfur removal fuel switching & fuel cleaning limestone injection & fluidized bed combustion - fig p 414 flue gas desulfurization & sulfur recovery nitrogen oxide control catalytic converters (ruined by Pb) hydrocarbon controls PCV in cars after burners

30 Laws - clean air acts 1963 1970 1990 marketing pollution rights ozone protection auto emissions currently under review by Supreme Court

31 current conditions/future prospects improving in first world - fig p 418 degrading in second and third world

32 Water resources importance essential for life 60% of body 70% of Earth’s surface source volcanoes comets hydrologic cycle - fig p 424

33 water distribution - table p 426 oceans - 97% glaciers/snow - 2% groundwater - 0.28% lakes/reservoirs fresh - 0.009% saline - 0.007% also soil moisture - 0.005% atmo - 0.001% wetlands - 0.0003% (typo in book) rivers and streams - 0.0001%

34 groundwater movement fig p 428 infiltration zone of aeration (soil moisture) water table zone of saturation water moves under pressure of gravity through pores in the rock/sediment (rarely in cracks

35 surface water movement 2/3 - seasonal floods 1/3 - stable runoff

36 freshwater sources runoff direct storage and redistribution groundwater alternatives desalinization cloud seeding icebergs

37 drought long-term shortages cyclic

38 types of water use withdrawal - total removed consumption - not returned degradation - returned in a poorer state

39 quantities used - graph p 431 agriculture commercial/industrial cooling water for power plants metal refining petroleum refining paper domestic public lost

40 implication/effects of use groundwater - best source degradation drawdown of water table - fig p 435 mining surface water reservoirs evaporation leakage siltation in-stream users

41 management watershed management conservation by users pricing

42 Water pollution degradation of water quality sources point non-point atmosphere in-stream users

43 water pollution types (table p 449) infectious agents - fig p 452 oxygen-demanding wastes - fig p 451 BOD examine - dissolved oxygen & life forms present nutrients eutrophication - nutrients stimulate growth vegetation chokes water clarity decreases upon death - produce oxygen demanding waste examine - nitrogen and phosphorous content

44 water pollution types table p 449 toxic inorganics organic chemicals pesticides petrochemicals - LUST pharmaceuticals sediment thermal pollution

45 current water quality fig p 457 1972 clean water act regulated point sources make all waters fishable and swimmable

46 current problems feedlots non-point source ag runoff storm sewers USTs landfills septic/sewage treatment developing countries

47 other water pollution problems groundwater and drinking water supplies fig p 460 many sources filtration capacity is limited contamination difficult to remove oceans - fig p 462 trash ag runoff nets petroleum spills natural human

48 pollution control source reduction land management human waste septic tanks & lagoons - fig p 465 municipal sewage treatment - fig p 466 primary - filtering secondary tertiary other methods septic effluent to central collection wetland use

49 laws - table p 469 clean water act 1972 - original amending and reauthorizing safe drinking water act regulates municipal supplies mandates testing and imposes limits CERCLA/superfund Great Lakes water quality agreement London dumping convention

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