Presentation on theme: "APES Unit 2 Abiotic and Biotic Parts of Ecosystems"— Presentation transcript:
1 APES Unit 2 Abiotic and Biotic Parts of Ecosystems La Cañada High SchoolLiving in the Environment by Miller, 11th Edition
2 Matter and Energy Resources: Types and Concepts 3-1: Matter: Forms, Structure, and Quality3-2: Energy: Forms and Quality3-3: Physical and Chemical Changes and the Law of Conservation of Matter3-4: Nuclear Changes3-5: The Two Ironclad Laws of Energy3-6: Connections: Matter and Energy Laws and Environmental Problems
3 Matter Forms, Structure, and Quality Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.Matter is found in two chemical forms: elements and compounds.Various elements, compounds, or both can be found together in mixtures.
5 Atoms, Ions, and Molecules Atoms: The smallest unit of matter that is unique to a particular element.Ions: Electrically charged atoms or combinations of atoms.Molecules: Combinations of two or more atoms of the same or different elements held together by chemical bonds.
6 What are Atoms?The main building blocks of an atom are positively charged PROTONS, uncharged NEUTRONS, and negatively charged ELECTRONSEach atom has an extremely small center, or nucleus, containing protons and neutrons.
11 Inorganic CompoundsThe earth’s crust is composed of mostly inorganic minerals and rockThe crust is the source of all most nonrenewable resource we use: fossil fuels, metallic minerals, etc.Various combinations of only eight elements make up the bulk of most minerals.
12 Nonmetallic Elements.Carbon (C), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), Sulfur (S), Hydrogen (H), and Phosphorous (P).Nonmetallic elements make up about 99% of the atoms of all living things.
13 Ionic Compounds Structure Ionic bonds Composed of oppositely-charged ionsNetwork of ions held together by attractionIonic bondsForces of attraction between opposite charges
14 Formation of Ionic Compounds Transfer of electrons between the atoms of these elementsAtom that is metal loses electrons (oxidation) to become positiveAtom that is nonmetal gains electrons (reduction) to become negativeResults in drastic changes to the elements involved
16 Sodium ChlorideSodium is a rather "soft" metal solid, with a silver-grey colorChlorine is greenish colored gasWhen a single electron is transferred between these elements, their atoms are transformed via a violent reaction into a totally different substance called, sodium chloride, commonly called table salt -- a white, crystalline, and brittle solid
17 Covalent Bonds Formed by two non-metals Similar electronegativities Neither atom is "strong" enough to steal electrons from the otherTherefore, the atoms must share the electrons
18 Covalent Bonds Chlorine atoms with valence electrons shown Chlorine atom has seven valence electrons, but wants eightWhen unpaired electron is shared, both atoms now have a full valence of eight electronsIndividual atoms are independent, but once the bond is formed, energy is released, and the new chlorine molecule (Cl2) behaves as a single particle
19 Organic CompoundsCompounds containing carbon atoms combined with each other with atoms of one or more other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, etc.HydrocarbonsCompounds of carbon and hydrogenChlorofluorocarbonsCarbon, chlorine, and fluorine atomsSimple carbohydratescarbon, hydrogen, oxygen combinations
24 Matter QualityMatter quality is a measure of how useful a matter resource is, based in its availability and concentration.High quality matter is organized, concentrated, and usually found near the earth’s crust.Low quality is disorganized, dilute, and has little potential for use as a matter resource.
26 Energy Energy is the capacity to do work and transfer heat. Energy comes in many forms: light, heat, and electricity.Kinetic energy is the energy that matter has because of its mass and its speed or velocity.
27 Electromagnetic Spectrum The range of electromagnetic waves, which differ in wavelength (distance between successive peaks or troughs) and energy content.
28 Kinetic energy.Kinetic energy is the energy that matter has because of its mass and its speed or velocity.It is energy in action or motion.Wind, flowing streams, falling rocks, electricity, moving car - all have kinetic energy.
29 Potential energyPotential energy is stored energy that is potential available for use.Potential energy can be charged to kinetic energy.
30 Energy QualityVery High: Electricity, Nuclear fission, and Concentrated sunlight.High: Hydrogen gas, Natural gas, and Coal.Moderate: Normal sunlight, and wood.Low: Low- temperature heat and dispersed geothermal energy.
31 Natural Radioactive Decay A nuclear change in which unstable isotopes spontaneously emit fast moving particles, high energy radiation, or both at a fixed rateThe unstable isotopes are also known as radioactive isotopes or radioisotopes
32 Natural Radioactive Decay The decay continues until the original isotope becomes a stable, nonradioactive isotopeUntil then, the radiation emitted is damaging ionizing radiationGamma raysAlpha particlesBeta particlesAfter ten half-lifes, the material is said to be clean
34 Nuclear FissionNuclear change in which nuclei of certain isotopes with large mass numbers are spilt apart into lighter nuclei when struck by neutronsEach fission releases two or three more neutrons and energy
35 Click to see QuickTime Movie of Fission http://www. atomicarchive
36 Nuclear Fission Critical Mass Chain Reaction Enough fissionable nuclei available for multiple fission reactions to occurChain ReactionMultiple fissions within a critical massReleases huge amounts of energyAtomic Bomb or Nuclear Power Plant
37 The “Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy” In any nuclear change, the total amount of matter and energy involved remains the same.E = mc2The energy created by the release of the strong nuclear forces for 1 kilogram of matter will produce enough energy to elevated the temperature of all the water used in the Los Angeles basin in one day by 10,000oC
38 What is Nuclear Fusion?Nuclear Fusion is a nuclear change in which two isotopes of light elements, such as hydrogen, are forced together at extremely high temperatures until they fuse to form a heavier nucleus, releasing energy in the process.
39 First Law of Thermodynamics In all physical and chemical changesEnergy is neither created nor destroyedBut it may be converted from one form to another
40 Second Law of Thermodynamics When energy is changed from one form to anotherSome of the useful energy is always degraded to lower-quality, more dispersed, less useful energyAlso known as Law of Entropy
41 High Waste Societies UNSUSTAINABLE! People continue to use and waste more and more energy and matter resources at an increasing rateAt some point, high-waste societies will becomeUNSUSTAINABLE!
42 Goals of Matter Recycling Societies To allow economic growth to continue without depleting matter resources or producing excess pollution
43 Matter Recycling Societies AdvantagesSaves EnergyBuys TimeDisadvantagesRequires high-quality energy which cannot be recycledAdds waste heatNo infinite supply of affordable high-quality energy availableLimit to number of times a material can be recycled
44 Low Waste Societies Works with nature to reduce throughput Based on energy flow and matter recycling
45 Low Waste Societies Function Reuse/recycle most nonrenewable matter resourcesUse potentially renewable resources no faster than they are replenishedUse matter and energy resources efficiently
46 Low Waste Societies Function Reduce unnecessary consumptionEmphasize pollution prevention and waste reductionControl population growth
47 Ecology, Ecosystems, and Food Webs Unit 2, Chapter 4Ecology, Ecosystems, and Food Webs
48 Chapter 4 Ecology, Ecosystems, and Food Webs 4-1 Ecology and Life4-2 Earth’s Life-Support Systems4-3 Ecosystem Concept4-4 Food Webs and Energy Flow in Ecosystems4-5 How do Ecologists learn about Ecosystems?4-6 Ecosystem Services and Sustainability
49 4-1 Ecology and LifeEcology- study of relationships between organisms and their environmentEcology examines how organisms interact with their nonliving (abiotic) environment such as sunlight, temperature, moisture, and vital nutrientsBiotic interaction among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and the ecosphere
50 Distinction between Species Wild species- one that exists as a population of individuals in a natural habitat, ideally similar to the one in which its ancestors evolvedDomesticated species- animals such as cows, sheep, food crops, animals in zoos
51 Vocabulary Population Genetic Diversity Group of interacting individuals of the same species that occupy a specific area at the same timeGenetic DiversityPopulations that are dynamic groups that change in size, age distribution, density, and genetic composition as a result of changes in environmental conditions
52 Ecosphere or Biosphere HabitatPlace where a population or individual organism naturally livesCommunityComplex interacting network of plants, animals, and microorganismsEcosystemCommunity of different species interacting with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energyEcosphere or BiosphereAll earth's ecosystems
53 What is Life? All life shares a set of basic characteristics Made of cells that have highly organized internal structure and functionsCharacteristic types of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules in each cell
54 Living OrganismsCapture and transform matter and energy from their environment to supply their needs for survival, growth, and reproductionMaintain favorable internal conditions, despite changes in their external environment through homeostasis, if not overstressed
55 Living Organisms Perpetuate themselves through reproduction Adapt to changes in environmental conditions through the process of evolution
57 4-2 Geosphere The Earth contains several layers or concentric spheres LithosphereCrust and upper mantleCrustOutermost, thin silicate zone, eight elements make up 98.5% of the weight of the earth’s crust
58 4-2 Geosphere Mantle Core Surrounded by a thick, solid zone, largest zone, rich with iron, silicon, oxygen, and magnesium, very hotCoreInnermost zone, mostly iron, solid inner part, surrounded by a liquid core of molten materialInner Core is hotter than surface of the Sun
59 4-2 Atmosphere Thin envelope of air around the planet Troposphere extends about 17 kilometers above sea level, contains nitrogen (78%), oxygen(21%), and is where weather occursStratosphere17-48 kilometers above sea level, lower portions contains enough ozone (O3) to filter out most of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation4-2 Atmosphere
60 Consists of the earth’s liquid water, ice, and water vapor in the atmosphere 4-2 Hydrosphere
61 What Sustains Life on Earth? Life on the earth depends on three interconnected factorsOne-way flow of high-quality energy from the sunCycling of matter or nutrients (all atoms, ions, or molecules needed for survival by living organisms), through all parts of the ecosphereGravity, which allows the planet to hold onto its atmosphere and causes the downward movement of chemicals in the matter cycles
62 Sun Fireball of hydrogen (72%) and helium (28%) Nuclear fusion Sun has existed for 6 billion yearsSun will stay for another 6.5 billion yearsVisible light that reaches troposphere is the ultraviolet ray which is not absorbed in ozone
63 Solar Energy 72% of solar energy warms the lands 0.023% of solar energy is captured by green plants and bacteriaPowers the cycling of matter and weather systemDistributes heat and fresh water
65 Type of Nutrients Nutrient Macronutrient Micronutrient Any atom, ion, or molecule an organism needs to live grow or reproduceEx: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen… etcMacronutrientnutrient that organisms need in large amountEx: phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, iron … etcMicronutrientnutrient that organism need in small amountEx: zinc, sodium, copper… etc
66 Biomes – Large regions characterized by distinct climate, and specific life-forms Climate – Long-term weather; main factor determining what type of life will be in a certain area.
67 Ecosphere SeparationThe Ecosphere and it’s ecosystem can be separated into two partsAbiotic- nonliving, componentsEx: air, water, solar energyPhysical and chemical factors that influence living organismsBiotic- living, componentsEx: plants and animals
68 Range of ToleranceVariations in it’s physical and chemical environmentDifferences in genetic makeup, health, and age.Ex: trout has to live in colder water than bass
69 Limiting FactorMore important than others in regulating population growthEx: water light, and soilLacking water in the desert can limit the growth of plants
70 Limiting Factor Principle too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit growth of population, even if all the other factors are at optimum (favorable) range of tolerance.Ex: If a farmer plants corn in phosphorus-poor soil, even if water, nitrogen are in a optimum levels, corn will stop growing, after it uses up available phosphorus.
71 Dissolved Oxygen Content Amount of oxygen gas dissolved in a given volume of water at a particular temperature and pressure.Limiting factor of aquatic ecosystem
72 Salinityamount of salt dissolved in given volume of water
73 Living Organisms in Ecosystem Producers or autotrophs- makes their own food from compound obtained from environment.Ex: plant gets energy or food from sun
74 Living Organisms in Ecosystem Photosynthesis- ability of producer to convert sunlight, abiotic nutrients to sugars and other complex organic compoundsChlorophyll- traps solar energy and converts into chemical energy
76 Producer transmit 1-5% of absorbed energy into chemical energy, which is stored in complex carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid in plant tissue
77 Chemosynthesis-Bacteria can convert simple compounds from their environment into more complex nutrient compound without sunlightEx: becomes consumed by tubeworms, clams, crabsBacteria can survive in great amount of heat
78 Consumers or Heterotrophs Obtain energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains
79 Consumers Herbivores (plant-eaters) or primary consumers Feed directly on producersDeer, goats, rabbits
80 Consumers Carnivores (meat eater) or secondary consumers Feed only on primary consumerLion, Tiger
81 Consumers Tertiary (higher-level) consumer Feed only on other carnivoresWolf
82 Consumers Omnivores- consumers that eat both plants and animals Ex: pigs, humans, bears
83 Consumers Scavengers- feed on dead organisms Vultures, flies, crows, shark
84 Consumers Detritivores- live off detritus Detritus parts of dead organisms and wastes of living organisms.Detritus feeders- extract nutrients from partly decomposed organic matter plant debris, and animal dung.
85 ConsumersDecomposers - Fungi and bacteria break down and recycle organic materials from organisms’ wastes and from dead organismsFood sources for worms and insectsBiodegradable - can be broken down by decomposers
86 Respiration Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration or Fermentation Uses oxygen to convert organic nutrients back into carbon dioxide and waterGlucose + oxygen Carbon dioxide + water + energyAnaerobic Respiration or FermentationBreakdown of glucose in absence of oxygen
87 Food ChainFood Chain-Series of organisms in which each eats or decomposes the preceding oneDecomposers complete the cycle of matter by breaking down organic waste, dead animal. Plant litter and garbage.Whether dead or alive organisms are potential (standard) sources of food for other organisms.
88 Second Law of EnergyOrganisms need high quality chemical energy to move, grow and reproduce, and this energy is converted into low-quality heat that flows into environmentTrophic levels or feeding levels- Producer is a first trophic level, primary consumer is second trophic level, secondary consumer is third.Decomposers process detritus from all trophic levels.
89 Food Web Complex network of interconnected food chains Food web and chainsOne-way flow of energyCycling of nutrients through ecosystem
90 Food Webs Grazing Food Webs Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivoresThen through an array of carnivoresEventually to decomposers(100,000 Units of Energy)
91 Food Webs Grazing Food Webs Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivoresThen through an array of carnivoresEventually to decomposers(1,000 Units of Energy)
92 Food Webs Grazing Food Webs Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivoresThen through an array of carnivoresEventually to decomposers(100 Units of Energy)
93 Food Webs Grazing Food Webs Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivoresThen through an array of carnivoresEventually to decomposers(10 Units of Energy)
94 Food Webs Grazing Food Webs Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivoresThen through an array of carnivoresEventually to decomposers(1 Units of Energy)
95 Food Webs Detrital Food Webs Organic waste material or detritus is the major food sourceEnergy flows mainly from producers (plants) to decomposers and detritivores.
96 Pyramid of Energy FlowMore steps or trophic levels in food chain or web, greater loss of usable energy as energy flows through trophic levelsMore trophic levels the Chains or Webs have more energy is consumed after each one. That’s why food chains and webs rarely have more than 4 steps
97 Pyramid of Energy FlowLoss of usable energy as energy flows through trophic levels of food chains and websRarely have more than 4 steps
98 Biomass Dry weight of all organic matter contained in organisms. Biomass is measured in dry weightWater is not source of energy or nutrientBiomass of first trophic levels is dry mass of all producersUseable energy transferred as biomass varies from 5%-20% (10% standard)
99 Storage of biomass at various trophic levels of ecosystem Pyramid of BiomassStorage of biomass at various trophic levels of ecosystem
100 Number of organisms at each trophic level Pyramid of NumbersNumber of organisms at each trophic level
102 Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) Rate in which producers convert solar energy into chemical energy (biomass) in a given amount of time
103 Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Rate in which energy for use by consumers is stored in new biomass of plantsMeasured in kilocalories per square meter per year or grams in biomassNPP is the limit determining the planet’s carrying capacity for all species.59% of NPP occurs in land / 41% occurs in ocean
104 Ecological Efficiency Percentage of energy transferred from one trophic level to another.10% ecological efficiency1,000,000 units of energy from sun10,000 units available for green plants (photosynthesis)1000 units for herbivores100 units for primary carnivores10 units for secondary carnivores
105 Studying Ecosystems FIELD RESEARCH LABORATORY RESEARCH Going into nature and observing/measuring the structure of ecosystemsMajority of what we know now comes from this typeDisadvantage is that it is expensive, time-consuming, and difficult to carry out experiments due to many variablesLABORATORY RESEARCHSet up, observation, and measurement of model ecosystems under laboratory conditionsConditions can easily be controlled and are quick and cheapDisadvantage is that it is never certain whether or not result in a laboratory will be the same as a result in a complex, natural ecosystemSYSTEMS ANALYSISSimulation of ecosystem rather than study real ecosystemHelps understand large and very complicated systems
106 Ecosystem ImportanceEcosystem services are the natural services or earth capital that support life on the earthEssential to the quality of human life and to the functioning of the world’s economies
107 Ecosystem Importance Ecosystem services include: Controlling and moderating climateProviding and renewing air, water, soilRecycling vital nutrients through chemical cyclingProviding renewable and nonrenewable energy sources and nonrenewable mineralsFurnishing people with food, fiber, medicines, timber, and paper
108 Ecosystem Importance Ecosystem services include Pollinating crops and other plant speciesAbsorbing, diluting, and detoxifying many pollutants and toxic chemicalsHelping control populations of pests and disease organismsSlowing erosion and preventing floodingProviding biodiversity of genes and species
109 Why Is Biodiversity So Important? Food, wood, fibers, energy, raw materials, industrial chemicals, medicines, …Provides for billions of dollars in the global economyProvides recycling, purification, and natural pest controlRepresents the millions of years of adaptation, and is raw material for future adaptations
110 Two Principles of Ecosystem Sustainability Use renewable solar energy as energy sourceEfficiently recycle nutrients organisms need for survival, growth, and reproduction
111 Nutrient Cycles and Soils Unit 2, Chapter 5Nutrient Cycles and Soils
112 Matter Cycling in Ecosystems Nutrient or Biogeochemical CyclesNatural processes that recycle nutrients in various chemical forms in a cyclic manner from the nonliving environment to living organisms and back again
114 Biogeochemical Cycle Locations HydrosphereWater in the form of ice, liquid, and vaporOperates local, regional, and global levelsAtmosphericLarge portion of a given element (i.e. Nitrogen gas) exists in gaseous form in the atmosphereSedimentaryThe element does not have a gaseous phase or its gaseous compounds don’t make up a significant portion of its supplyOperates local and regional basis
115 Nutrient Cycling & Ecosystem Sustainability Natural ecosystems tend to balanceNutrients are recycled with reasonable efficiencyHumans are accelerating rates of flow of materNutrient loss from soilsDoubling of normal flow of nitrogen in the nitrogen cycle is a contributes to global warming, ozone depletion, air pollution, and loss of biodiversityIsolated ecosystems are being influenced by human activities