Earth Layers The Earth is divided into four main layers. *Crust *Mantle *Outer Core *Inner Core
The Crust * The Earth’s crust is like the skin of an apple. It is very thin compared to the other three layers. *The crust makes up 1% of the Earth. * The crust of the Earth is broken into many pieces called plates.
The Earth’s crust is made of… Continental Crust thick (10-70km) - buoyant (less dense than oceanic crust) - mostly old Oceanic Crust - thin (~7 km) - dense (sinks under continental crust) - young
Oceanic crust: depth of 0-10 kilometres The majority of the Earth's crust was made through volcanic activity. The oceanic ridge system, a 40,000 kilometre network of volcanoes, generates new oceanic crust at the rate of 17 km3 per year, covering the ocean floor with an igneous rock called basalt. Hawaii and Iceland are two examples of the accumulation of basalt islands. Continental crust: depth of 0-75 kilometres This is the outer part of the Earth composed essentially of crystalline rocks. These are low-density buoyant minerals dominated mostly by quartz (SiO2) and feldspars (metal-poor silicates). The crust is the surface of the Earth. Because cold rocks deform slowly, we refer to this rigid outer shell as the lithosphere (the rocky or strong layer).
The Mantle The mantle is the layer below the crust. The mantle is the largest layer of the Earth. The mantle is divided into two regions: the upper and lower sections.
The mantle is the thick layer of hot, solid rock The mantle is in a putty-like semi-solid state that can flow very slowly. In the mantle, temperatures range between 500 to 900 °C (932 to 1,652 °F) It's made of solid rock and behaves like an extremely viscous liquid
Outer Core * The core of the Earth is like a ball of very hot metals. * The outer core is liquid. * The outer core is made up of iron and is very dense.
The outer core has a very high temperature and ranges from about 4,400 degrees Celsius to about 6,100 degrees Celsius composed of iron and nickel Convection of liquid metals in the outer core creates the Earth's magnetic field.
Inner Core * The inner core of the Earth has temperatures and pressures so great that the metals are squeezed together and are not able to move. * The inner core is a solid.
It is made of solid iron and nickel. Temperatures in the core are thought to be in the region of 5000-6000°c and it's solid due to the massive pressure.
ASTHENOSPHERE & LITHOSPHERE ASTHENOSPHERE & LITHOSPHERE In the Earth, the lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth. The asthenosphere is a portion of the upper mantle just below the lithosphere that is involved in plate tectonic movements
The Earth Bowl First, everyone will divide up into groups! The groups need to pick two people to be the materials specialists. Those people will need to get: A plastic baggie which contains graham crackers and sugar. A container of raspberry Jell-O A container of black cherry Jell-O A container of lemon Jell-O A spoon A bowl DO NOT TOUCH ANY OF THE MATERIALS AFTER YOU HAVE RECEIVED THEM. WAIT UNTIL I EXPLAIN WHAT TO DO.
The Steps to Making the Layers! 1) First you will need the plastic baggie containing graham crackers and sugar. Break the graham crackers up with the sugar in the bag. DO NOT POUND TOO HARD! YOU DON’T WANT THE BAG TO BREAK! 2) After the graham crackers are broken up into crumbs, I will bring you butter to mix in the baggie. 3) Now, take the graham crackers out and press the mixture on the sides of the bowl to form the crust.
4) Now take the black cherry Jell-O and spoon it into the bowl that you have put the crust in. Form it so there is a pocket in the middle left open. 5) Take the lemon Jell-O and put it in the bowl where you left the pocket, but make sure you leave a hole in the middle for your raspberry Jell-O. 6) Finally, put your raspberry Jell-O in the center.
You have now made the Layers of the Earth. *The Crust (graham crackers) *The Mantle (black cherry) * The Outer Core (lemon) * The Inner Core (raspberry) You have now made the Layers of the Earth. *The Crust (graham crackers) *The Mantle (black cherry) * The Outer Core (lemon) * The Inner Core (raspberry)