Presentation on theme: "The atmosphere includes layers of gases that surround the earth. The lithosphere is the surface of the earth that forms continents and the ocean floor."— Presentation transcript:
The atmosphere includes layers of gases that surround the earth. The lithosphere is the surface of the earth that forms continents and the ocean floor. It includes rocks and minerals. The hydrosphere is all the water on the earth.
The Water Cycle
The 4 layers of the earth are… Crust Mantle Inner Core Outer Core
Compare an EGG to the layers of the earth. The shell –The crust The egg white –The mantle The yolk –The core
Crust = Lithosphere Scientists refer to the crust as the lithosphere. There are two types of crust. –Oceanic Crust Crust below the ocean. –Continental Crust The land on earth.
Crust = Lithosphere The upper crust is made of sedimentary rock. The lower layer of crust is made of igneous rock and metamorphic rock which is known as bedrock __________________ Sedimentary rock (Upper crust) __________________ Igneous and metamorphic rock (Lower crust) BEDROCK __________________ Mantle
The Mantle The mantle is below the crust. The mantle is the largest layer of the earth. The mantle is about 1,800 miles wide. It is about 85% of the total weight of the Earth. The material in the mantle is elastic. This mean it behaves in a plastic manner. The flow in the mantle occurs as convection currents; hot material rises, cools and then sinks. The closer you get to the core the hotter the rock is. Heat energy makes the rock near the core very weak.
The Core The core is made up of two layers. –The Outer Core The outer core is made up of super-heated liquid molten lava. This lava is believed to be mostly iron, and nickel. The molten lava flows at a slow rate which produces an electrical current. This electrical current powers the earth’s magnetic field. –The Inner Core The inner core has temperatures and pressures that are so high that the metals are squeezed together into a big solid ball of mostly iron, and nickel.