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The Dynamic Crust Topic 12 Topic 12 in Review Book.

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2 The Dynamic Crust Topic 12 Topic 12 in Review Book

3 I. Evidence of Crustal Motion Original horizontality A concept that assumes that sedimentary rocks (and some igneous rocks) form in horizontal layers parallel to Earth’s surface

4 These horizontal rock layers are called strata Rock layers that are not horizontal are inferred to be deformed by crustal motion

5 1. Folded rock layers are bent or curved by pressing forces 2. Faulted rock layers are offset along a zone of weakness called a fault

6 3. Tilted rock strata are slanted or tipped away from horizontality 4. Displaced rock and fossils found hundreds of meters above sea level indicate that the land has been uplifted (raised up)




10 II. Consequences of Crustal Motion 1. Mountain building 2. Earthquakes

11 An earthquake is a natural, rapid shaking of the lithosphere caused by the release of energy stored in rocks

12 l Some earthquakes are caused by faulting, l some are associated with lithospheric motion and l some are associated with movements of magma

13 l The potential energy stored in rocks is given off in seismic waves which travel outward from the point of motion in all directions

14 l The focus of an earthquake is the starting point from which the seismic waves are emitted l The epicenter of an earthquake is the location on the earth’s surface directly above the focus

15 focus epicenter lithosphere

16 a.Analyzing Earthquake Data l There are three types of seismic waves: –P waves (primary waves) –S waves (secondary waves) –Surface waves

17 Properties of Seismic Waves l P waves are faster than any other seismic wave when traveling through the same material l Therefore, P waves will arrive at a seismic station first

18 l In general, as the density of the material increases, the velocity of the seismic waves increases l As waves travel through areas of differing densities, they are refracted (bent)

19 l As pressure increases, the velocity of seismic waves increases l P-waves will travel through solids, liquids and gases l S-waves will only travel through solids

20 l Based upon this knowledge, seismic data has led to our understanding of the interior of the earth. l Based on the change in direction of the p and s waves, we believe that the outer core of the earth is liquid

21 l Because seismic waves reflect off dense rock within the earth, they can be used to locate valuable rock and mineral resources


23 Locating the Epicenter of an Earthquake l Epicenters are located by using the velocity differences (lag time) between P and S waves.

24 l Information from 3 stations is needed l The epicenter is where the circles drawn for all 3 stations intersect

25 A B C

26 l The farther an observer is from the epicenter, the longer it takes the seismic waves to travel there l The longer they travel, the farther apart they get… l The greater the lag time

27 Analyzing Epicenter Information 1. P A and S A : read seismogram 2. Lag time: subtract S A – P A 3. Distance: measure lag time and slide and fit (use ESRT) 4. P T : go up and over from distance 5. O T : subtract P A - P T

28 l An earthquake intensity (Mercalli) scale can be used to measure the effects on humans and/or their surroundings. l As distance from the epicenter increases, the amount of damage decreases

29 l An earthquake magnitude (Richter) scale measures the strength of an earthquake… l The amount of energy released by the crustal motion

30 Risk Prevention l Proper planning can greatly reduce damage, death and injury from earthquakes

31 l An individual should remember to drop, cover and hold… l Drop down under a strong object, cover your eyes. Hold onto the strong object. l DO NOT run out of the building

32 l Community planning includes: a. Inspecting the soil and bedrock to ensure building on solid ground b. Retrofitting older buildings to make them safer…such as bolting buildings to their foundations and cross- bracing walls

33 l Seismic sea waves or Tsunamis are large ocean waves formed due to a disruption on the ocean floor such as an earthquake, volcanic eruption or rapid landslide

34 b. Movement of Magma l When magma reaches the surface of the earth, it becomes lava l A volcano is a mountain made of extrusive igneous rock

35 l A volcanic eruption is the release of gases, lava and/or lava rock onto the earth’s surface or into the atmosphere

36 l People can be injured and killed by flowing lava, falling rock and gases of extreme temperature

37 l Volcanic ash mixes with water to create massive mudslides and flooding l Gases can cause immediate death and/or long term lung damage l Volcanic ash in the atmosphere cools the earth by blocking insolation



40 Monitoring methods l Satellites measure infrared energy l Tilt meters measure increases in slope caused by magma inflating the volcano

41 l Elevation benchmarks, latitude and longitude measurements and topographic maps indicate increases in elevation and width associated with eruptions

42 l Measurements allow enough warning to develop emergency action plans including rescue and evacuation routes

43 l The regions surrounding the Pacific Ocean contains many features associated with crustal activity and is referred to as the Ring of Fire


45 c. Earth’s Interior l Scientists infer most of the properties of the earth’s interior by studying seismic waves

46 l The crust is the outermost part of the earth which includes the soil and weathered and eroded rock l The mantle is the mostly solid region. It makes up ~80% of the earth’s volume

47 l The interface between these two regions is called the Moho which is short for the Mohorovicic discontinuity

48 l The lithosphere is the combined area of crust and rigid mantle. This is divided into sections called plates

49 l Another portion of the upper mantle is the asthenosphere which is believed to be made of a plastic-like material that is partly magma Much of the magma and lava is thought to originate here

50 l Below the asthenosphere is the stiffer mantle

51 l The earth’s core is divided into two parts. l Because s-waves cannot pass through the outer core, it cannot be a solid nor a gas; therefore it is believed to be a liquid

52 l Because of the great pressure as well as the increase in p-wave velocity, the inner core is believed to be solid

53 l The crust is divided into two divisions: l The continental crust makes up the continents and l The oceanic crust makes up the crust beneath the oceans

54 l Continental crust is thicker and less dense than oceanic crust Therefore, continental crust is granitic rock and oceanic crust is basaltic rock

55 l It is believed that the inner and outer cores are made mostly of iron and nickel. This is believed based on the composition of meteorites and the presence of the earth’s magnetic field

56 d. Plate Tectonics l A unifying model that explains most major features and events of the earth is plate tectonics

57 l which states that the earth’s lithosphere is broken into sections called plates. Their movement and interaction produce the major changes in the earth’s surface l The plates move at a rate of ~3 cm/year

58 Plate boundaries l A divergent plate boundary occurs when two plates move apart. l At this boundary, magma rises up to fill in the space created l This separation is sometimes called seafloor spreading

59 l A convergent plate boundary occurs when two plates collide l Subduction occurs when one plate sinks under another plate l This can result in ocean trenches and volcanic island arcs

60 l A long, steep, narrow depression is called an ocean trench and forms at convergent boundaries l Very deep earthquakes occur at subduction zones

61 l Magma formed from subduction can create island arcs or young mountains l When two continental plates collide, the plate edges bunch up together creating thickening of the crust and lithosphere

62 l Orogeny refers to times of mountain building l A transform boundary occurs when two plates slide past one another. This dragging builds up potential energy which is eventually released as kinetic energy as earthquakes

63 l The San Andreas Fault is an example of this type of sliding boundary

64 Convection Currents l Convection currents drag or push plates creating plate boundaries l The energy source for this motion is the heat of the earth’s interior


66 l Hot spots are regions of volcanic activity located away from plate boundaries

67 l It is believed that hot spots occur where rising magma stays stationary and the plate moves over it. l The intense heat melts its way to, or near, the surface becoming sites of volcanic activity.

68 l Because the plates move, a series of volcanic mountains form for miles.

69 Continental Drift l The outlines of the continents appear to fit together like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle

70 l The ancient supercontinent called Pangaea began splitting apart ~250 million years ago


72 l In 1912, a German scientist named Alfred Wegener proposed that the continents have moved from one location to another throughout time.


74 Supportive evidence l Similarities in minerals, rocks, fossils, age and structural features are found where the landmasses were once together

75 l One example is the fossilized remains of Mesosaurus – a small freshwater reptile. l Fossils of this reptile are found in both South America and Africa

76 l Evidence of hot climates at the poles and cold climates at the equator implies that plate movements have changed the positions of Earth’s landmasses

77 l The farther from the center of an ocean ridge a sample is taken, the older the sample is found to be

78 l Heat measurements show that as distance from an ocean ridge increases temperature decreases

79 l A process called reversal of Earth’s magnetic polarity tells us that the earth’s magnetic field has reversed, or flip flopped, hundreds of times throughout Earth’s history

80 l Normal polarity is when magnetic north is near geographic north l Reversed polarity is when magnetic north is near geographic south

81 l There is a pattern of corresponding stripes of normal polarity alternating with reversed polarity located on either side of the mid ocean ridge


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