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Planet Earth. Earth’s Formation The earth formed by accretion of dust and small objects in the early solar system. –Heat from collisions –Melt and reform.

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Presentation on theme: "Planet Earth. Earth’s Formation The earth formed by accretion of dust and small objects in the early solar system. –Heat from collisions –Melt and reform."— Presentation transcript:

1 Planet Earth

2 Earth’s Formation The earth formed by accretion of dust and small objects in the early solar system. –Heat from collisions –Melt and reform Earth rocks are compared to meteorites and moon rocks. orbital motion different orbit collision

3 Layers in the Earth Heating the earth caused the heavy metals to sink and lighter minerals to rise. crust mantle outer core inner core

4 Seismic Waves Earthquakes near the surface create vibrations. –P waves compress –S waves shake, slower Waves can be measured at surface points far away. –Interior information

5 Core The earth’s core consists of iron and other metals. –3500 km radius Radioactivity keeps it hot. –Temperature to 6500 K –Liquid metal outer core Density keeps part solid. –Solid within 1200 km –Pressure over 1 million atmospheres U Colorado

6 Mantle Lighter minerals congregated above the core. –Silicates: silicon, aluminum, magnesium, oxygen –Iron, too The mantle is solid, but plastic. –Slow movement, like putty under pressure. crust outer core mantleconvection

7 Crust The crust is the cool, hard surface of the mantle. –ocean - more dense, basalt rock –continents - less dense, granite rock The crust is very thin; 10 km out of 6400 km radius. crust outer core mantle ocean floor continent

8 Plate Tectonics Motion in the mantle causes the crust to split. –Earthquakes, mountains, volcanoes Plate tectonics causes continents to move over millions of years. crust outer core mantledescending plate overriding plate ZME Science

9 Hot Plumes The heat from the outer core causes molten rock to rise through the mantle. –Surface rises The dense rock causes gravity to be very slightly higher. crust outer core mantle plume bulge at the surface

10 Volcanism Plumes that push material to the surface form volcanoes. Gases and minerals in volcanoes tell us about the earth’s mantle. crust outer core mantle plume volcano


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