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Lecture Outlines Physical Geology, 14/e Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Plummer, Carlson & Hammersley
Earth’s Interior & Geophysical Properties Physical Geology 14/e, Chapter 17 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Deep interior of the Earth must be studied indirectly direct access only to crustal rocks and small upper mantle fragments brought up by volcanic eruptions or slapped onto continents by subducting oceanic plates deepest drillhole reached about 12 km, but did not reach the mantle Geophysics – the branch of geology that studies the interior of the Earth Introduction Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Seismic waves – vibrations from a large earthquake will pass through the entire Earth Seismic reflection – the return of some waves to the surface after bouncing off a rock layer boundary sharp boundary between two materials of different densities will reflect seismic waves Seismic refraction – bending of seismic waves as they pass from one material to another having different seismic wave velocities Evidence from Seismic Waves Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Main zones within the Earth: Crust – the outer layer of rock that forms a thin skin on Earth’s surface Mantle – a thick shell of dense rock that separates the crust above from the core below Core – the metallic central zone of the Earth Earth’s Internal Structure Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Seismic waves – indicate crust is thinner and denser beneath the oceans than on the continents different seismic wave velocities are indicative of different compositions oceanic crust is mafic, composed primarily of basalt and gabbro continental crust is felsic, with an average composition similar to granite The Crust Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
The mantle, like the crust, is made of solid rock with only isolated pockets of magma higher seismic wave velocities of mantle vs. crustal rocks indicative of denser, ultramafic composition crust and upper mantle together form the lithosphere, the brittle outer shell of the Earth that makes up the tectonic plates Beneath the lithosphere, seismic wave speeds abruptly decrease in a plastic low- velocity zone called the asthenosphere The Mantle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Primary evidence for existence and nature of Earth’s core specific areas on the opposite side of the Earth from large earthquakes do not receive seismic waves, resulting in seismic shadow zones P-wave shadow zone (103°-142° from epicenter) explained by refraction of waves encountering core- mantle boundary S-wave shadow zone (≥103° from epicenter) suggests outer core is a liquid careful observations of P-wave refraction patterns indicate inner core is solid The Core Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Core composition inferred from its calculated density, physical and electro-magnetic properties, and composition of meteorites iron metal (liquid in outer core and solid in inner core) best fits observed properties Core-mantle boundary – “D” layer, is marked by great changes in seismic velocity, density and temperature hot core may melt lowermost mantle or react chemically to form iron silicates in this seismic wave ultralow-velocity zone (ULVZ) The Core Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Isostasy – equilibrium of adjacent blocks of brittle crust “floating” on upper mantle thicker blocks of lower density crust have deeper “roots” and float higher (as mountains) Isostasy Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Isostatic adjustment – rising or sinking of crustal blocks to achieve isostatic balance crust will rise when large mass is rapidly removed from the surface, as at end of ice ages rise of crust after ice sheet removal is called crustal rebound Isostasy Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Gravitational force – determined by the mass and the distance between objects Gravity meters – detect tiny changes in gravity at Earth’s surface related to total mass beneath any given point gravity slightly higher over dense materials and slightly lower over less dense materials Gravity Measurements Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Magnetic field – region of magnetic force has north and south magnetic poles recorded by magnetic minerals in igneous rocks as they cool below their Curie Point Magnetic reversals – times when the poles of Earth’s magnetic field switch recorded in magnetic minerals occurred many times; timing appears chaotic Paleomagnetism – the study of ancient magnetic fields in rocks allows reconstruction of plate motions over time Earth’s Magnetic Field Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Magnetic anomalies – local increases or decreases in the Earth’s magnetic field strength positive and negative magnetic anomalies represent larger and smaller than average local magnetic field strengths, respectively Magnetometers – instruments used to measure local magnetic field strength can detect metallic ore deposits, igneous rocks, and thick layers of non-magnetic sediments beneath Earth’s surface Magnetic Anomalies Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Geothermal gradient – temperature increase with depth into the Earth tapers off sharply beneath lithosphere due to steady pressure increase with depth, increased temperatures produce little melt except in the outer core Heat flow – the gradual loss of heat through Earth’s surface major heat sources include original heat and radioactive decay locally higher where magma is near surface same magnitude, but with different sources, in the oceanic and continental crust Heat Within the Earth Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
End of Chapter 17 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Earth’s Layered Structure Section 8.4. Earth’s layered structure Most knowledge of the interior of the Earth comes from the study of earthquake waves.
(ALFRED WEGENER 1915 ) I PANGEA- A LARGE LANDMASS CONTAINING ALL OF THE CONTINENTS. WHICH EVENTUALLY BROKE INTO TWO LANDMASSES a) LAURASIA- N. AMERICA,EUROPE,
Earth’s Interior. The Geosphere: the solid Earth – 3 Main Layers Crust Mantle Core.
Chapter 9 and 10 The interior of the earth and its surface.
6 Chapter 6 Earthquakes and Earth s Interior. Earthquakes 6.1 What Is an Earthquake? Focus is the point within Earth where the earthquake starts. Epicenter.
Chapter 8 Earthquakes and Earths Interior. What is an earthquake? An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy. –Example:
Changes to Earth’s Surface Chapter 6. Prior Knowledge What are the layers of the Earth? What are the layers of the Earth? What causes Earth’s surface.
Chapter 9 Plate Tectonics. Section 9.4 & 9.5 Testing Plate Tectonics & Mechanisms of Plate Motion.
Geosphere mostly solid, rocky part of Earth from center of the earths core to the surface of the crust Chapter 3.
CST Review Standard 3 Plate Tectonics operating over geologic time has changed the patterns of land, sea, and mountains on Earths surface. a.Know the features.
Earths interior layers. The major layers of the Earth consist of the crust, mantle, outer core and inner core.
The Theory of Plate Tectonics. Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics is the theory that explains why and how continents move. By the 1960s evidence supported.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds Insert ECP6 Chapter 7 Opener.
Inside Earth A journey to the center of Earth. Key Terms seismic waves pressure crust basalt granite mantle lithosphere asthenosphere outer core inner.
Objectives Compare and contrast intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks. What are igneous rocks? Describe the composition of magma. Discuss the factors.
EARTHQUAKES. What are Earthquakes? The shaking or trembling of the earth/ground caused by the sudden release of energy Usually associated with faulting.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View.
Geology - is the study of rocks and materials that make up Earth and the processes that shape it.
What are the three Chemical layers of the Earth? Crust, mantle, core Each of these 3 layers is COMPOSED of same types of CHEMICALS Crust- Silica, Oxygen.
Structure of the Earth. Earth’s Compositional Layers.
Chapter 9: Earthquakes 9.1: Earthquakes occur along faults 9.2: Earthquakes release energy 9.3: Earthquake damage can be reduced.
Earth Science NHSPE Preparation and Tutoring. 1. Atmospheric Processes and the Water Cycle.
Unit 3 Rocks, Soil, Erosion and Mass Movements Including the Geological History of North Carolina!
Earths Interior Evidence. 1. Density of the Earth The strength of the gravitational pull of the Earth gives scientists a pretty good idea about the average.
Chapter 3 Rocks. Rock – any solid mass of mineral or mineral-like matter that occurs naturally as part of our planet –Usually solid mixtures of minerals.
Earthquakes Nelsons Class Earthquakes An earthquake is the shaking and vibrating of the earth caused by large and sudden releases of energy that.
Section 8Thermal state of the Earth – Part 1 EPS-320 / Fall-2007 – Professor Michael Riedel Slide S8-1 Contents: Heat within the.
A LPINE TUNDRA E ARTH FORMATIONS. MAPS LOOK AT THE WORLD MAPS LABEL THE 7 CONTINENTS LABEL THE 3 MAJOR OCEANS.
Chapter 15 EARTHQUAKES! BFRB Pages Earthquake causes An earthquake is the shaking of the Earth’s crust caused by a release of energy The movement.
1.How do the rocks of the crust and lithosphere compare? Rocks in the crust are less dense and made mainly of granite. The rocks in the lithosphere are.
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