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Warm up Write the questions!! 1.Describe the interior (Underground) of the Earth. 2.About how deep is the Earth going from one end to the other? Use page.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm up Write the questions!! 1.Describe the interior (Underground) of the Earth. 2.About how deep is the Earth going from one end to the other? Use page."— Presentation transcript:


2 Warm up Write the questions!! 1.Describe the interior (Underground) of the Earth. 2.About how deep is the Earth going from one end to the other? Use page

3 Describe the interior (Under ground) of the Earth. The Earth is divided in to 4 main layers. The Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, and Inner Core

4 About how deep is the Earth going from one end to the other? About 33, 600 Ft 4000 miles

5 This weeks Vocabulary Words Crust- the outer layer of Earth Mantle- Earth’s second layer from the surface Outer Core- Earth’s third layer from the surface. Inner Core- Earth’s fourth layer from the surface Magma- Molten rock beneath Earth’s surface Earthquakes- vibrations produced when rock breaks along a fault Plate tectonics- theory that Earth’s crust and upper mantle are broken into plates that float and move across on a plastic like layer of the mantle. Continental Drift- Wegener’s hypothesis that all continents were once connected in a single large landmass that broke apart about 200 millions years ago and drifted slowly to their current positions.

6 Title: Earth’s Layers Standard- S6E5a. Compare and contrast the Earth’s crust, mantle, and core including, temperature, density and compositions. EQ: How are the Earth’s Layers alike and different?

7 Layers of the Earth Skin of the peach is the crust Meat of the peach is the mantle Pit of the peach is the core

8 Layers of the EARTH CRUST 5 to 25 miles thick and up to 1,600 F MANTLE 1,800 miles thick and up to 8,000 F OUTER CORE 1,400 miles thick and up to 11,000 F INNER CORE 800 miles thick and up to 13,000 F

9 The Crust The thickness of Earth’s crust varies from about 32 kilometers under the continents, to about 8 kilometers under the oceans. Earth’s crust is made of two layers. The top layer is made mostly of light colored rock called granite, is less dense than the bottom layer which is made up of a dark colored rock called basalt. Both layers are found under the Earth’s continents. Only basalt is found in the crust under the oceans. Temperatures increase with depth from about 20 degrees C. at the top and a sizzling 870 degrees C. at the bottom of the crust.

10 The Mantle About 100 years ago a Croation scientist Andrijal Mohorovicic made a discovery while studying the behavior of earthquakes in the ground. His studies Revealed that the waves increased in speed as they passed through a boundary at a depth below the surface between 32 and 64 kilometers. He felt that this happened because the waves traveled through a less dense area. We now know that he founded the layer next to Earth’s crust which was the mantle. The makeup of the mantle’s rock is similar to the crust’s. The main difference is that there is more iron in the mantle than in the crust. Earth’s Mantle is about 2,900 kilometers thick and Temperature range from about 870 degrees C. to 2,200 degrees C at its bottom. At these temperatures rock begins to flow like a thick syrup.

11 The Outer & Inner Core Earth’s made up of two parts, a shell called the outer core and a sphere called the inner core. The outer core temperature ranges from 2,200 to 5000 degrees C. which is the temperature of the inner core. Both cores are made up of iron and nickel. However, while the iron and nickel in the outer core are liquids, the same metals in the inner core are solids. The melting point of iron is 1535 degrees C. The melting point of nickel is 1455 degrees C. Since the temperatures are higher than the melting points in both cores you might expect it to be liquid in both places. BUT the reason that the inner core is solid is do to the enormous pressure bearing down on the inner core. This is the Pressure of the Crust, Mantle and Outer Core COMBINED! Pressure can keep a solid from expanding even when the temperature is greater than the melting point. The outer core is about 2250 kilometers thick. The border from the inner core to the center of Earth is about 1,230 kilometers thick

12 Warm up/ Vocabulary Words Lithosphere- rigid layer of Earth about 100 km thick, made of crust and part of the upper mantle Asthenosphere: plastic like layer of Earth on which the lithospheric plates float and move around Density- a measurement of mass of an object divided by volume. Composition- a collection of material formed by two or more substances Temperature- a measure of the warmth or coldness of an object or substance with reference to some standard value. Convection current- current in the Earth’s mantle that transfers heat in the Earth’s interior and is the driving force for plate tectonics

13 Topic: Layers Part 2 Standard/Objective: S6E5a. Compare and contrast the earths crust mantle and core; including the temperature, density and composition. EQ: What is the difference between the Lithosphere and the Asthenosphere?? What is density?

14 Lithosphere PLATES in Plate Tectonics Upper 200 km Apart of the Crust and upper mantle Rigid Asthenosphere 200 km to ~700 Km Apart of the Upper mantle Hi temperatures / high pressure: little strength; ductile / plastic - NOT A LIQUID! Plates moving on this Magma generation Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

15 What is Density? If you take the same volume of different substances, then they will weigh different amounts g1.00 g8.00 g Wood Water Iron 1cm³ Q) Which has the greatest mass and therefore the most dense? Density is the Mass Per unit Volume!!!!! D= mass = g or g volume ml cm³

16 Layers Questions? 1.In general, how does the density of material in the Earth’s layers change with the depth? a.Density increases with depth b.Density decreases with depth c.Density does not change with depth d.Density increases, then decreases with depth 2. In Earth’s crust, what type of rock is found under the oceans? a. only granite b. Only basalt c. Granite on top, basalt underneath d. Basalt on top, granite underneath 3. The thickest layer of the Earth is the a. Crustb. Mantle c. Inner Cored. Outer core

17 Density Questions grams of a block of wood measures 6 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 4 cm high. What is the density of the wood ? grams of stone is placed into a graduated glass filled with 30 mL. of water and completely submerged. The water level rises to 40 mL. What is the density of the stone ?

18 The Composition of Earth

19 Temperature of Earth’s Layers Hotter!!! Cooler Core Mantle Crust

20 Density of Earth’s Layers More Dense Less Dense

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