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Volcanoes. Chapter 9 Pages: 247-266 Questions: 1-7, 12, 19, 21- 24.

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Presentation on theme: "Volcanoes. Chapter 9 Pages: 247-266 Questions: 1-7, 12, 19, 21- 24."— Presentation transcript:

1 Volcanoes

2 Chapter 9 Pages: Questions: 1-7, 12, 19,

3 Volcanoes are associated with plate boundaries and hot spots

4 What do you remember about oceanic and continental crust? Oceanic crust: – Composition? Continental crust: – Composition?

5 Oceanic crust: – Lower in silicon and oxygen – Higher in magnesium and iron Continental crust: – Higher in Si and O – Lower in Mg and Fe What do you remember about oceanic and continental crust?

6 Who cares about the composition? Composition determines the explosivity of a volcano

7 Volcanic rock names are based on the composition BasaltAndesiteRhyolite Lowest % of silicon and oxygen Intermediate % of silicon and oxygen Highest % of silicon and oxygen Oceanic crustMixture of oceanic and continental crust Continental crust Divergent plate boundaries and hot spots under oceanic crust (Hawaii) Subduction zones: Ring of Fire (Cascadia subduction zone) Hot spot under continental crust (Yellowstone)

8 Magma or lava? Within the crustOn the Earth’s surface

9 The more silicate tetrahedrons in a lava, the more explosive the volcano. Which lava contains the higher percentage silicon and oxygen? Rhyolitic or andesitic lavas

10 Why?

11 Viscosity Resistance to flow Which test tube contains the fluid with high viscosity? Left? Right?

12 Viscosity: resistance to flow Lavas with higher percentage of silicon and oxygen have a high viscosity-pasty Lavas with a lower percentage of silicon and oxygen have a low viscosity-fluid

13 Rhyolitic lava is associated with continental crust Rhyolite is cooled from pasty or thick lavas.

14 Andesitic lava is a combination of oceanic and continental crusts Andesite is cooled from pasty or thick lavas.

15 Rhyolitic and andesitic lavas produce pyroclastic debrisdebris

16 BasalticBasaltic lava is associated with oceanic crust Basalt is cooled from fluid lava.

17 Basaltic eruptions produce lava flows Pahoehoe flows: smooth, ropey surface

18 What type of lava is produced at each plate boundary or hot spot?

19 HotHot Spots The type of lava produced depends on hot spot location Under oceanic crust? Under continental crust?

20 Tectonic setting of Hawaii? Hot spot under oceanic crust

21 Stationary plume under oceanic crust Hot plume acts like a Bunsen burner Melts oceanic crust Material from the mantle is also added

22 As the Pacific plate moves over the hot spot, a chain of islands form.

23 Hawaii? Aa flows: blocky, jagged, slow moving flows Shield volcanoes are associated with basaltic lava flows. Lava fountains Basalt

24 Type of lava produced? Basalt Fluid- low viscosity

25 What other tectonic setting would produce basaltic lava flows?

26 Subduction zone: stratovolcanoes

27 CompositeComposite Volcano: subduction zones Built over a long period of time Can reach over feet Steep at summit, less steep at base

28 Mt. St. Helens versus Kiliauea Subduction zone Stratovolcano Andesitic lava (pasty) Violent eruptions – Pyroclastic debris Hot spot under oceanic crust Shield volcano Basaltic lava (fluid) – Lava flows

29 Mt. St. Helens: before the 1980 eruption eruption Bulge: plug that is pushed out by magma within the conduit.

30 Kilauea eruptioneruption

31 Caldera Formation: enormous eruption in a short period of time enormous Rhyolitic lava composition

32 Size Comparison of Volcanic Landforms

33 How is magma produced?

34 Decompression Melting

35 Decrease pressure, lower melting temperature

36 Addition of volatiles lowers melting temperature

37 Adding water, lowers the rock’s melting temperature.

38 GasesGases drive volcanic eruptions


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