Ms. Hartnett's Earth Science5 “Circumpacific Ring of Fire” – this is another fancy name for the plate boundaries. This is because most of the world’s earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain formations are on plate boundaries.
Ms. Hartnett's Earth Science6 There are three major lines of evidence that show that the continents were once all attached. 1.The outlines of the continents appear to fit together like puzzle pieces. Look at North America, South America, and Africa. 2.Rocks on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean match up in terms of type, sequence, and age. 3. Fossils of the same species of plants and animals are found on continents that are widely separated by oceans.
Ms. Hartnett's Earth Science7 Caused by compressional forces
Ms. Hartnett's Earth Science16 Tectonic plates are sliding past each other. Western California is moving north-west, not into the Pacific Ocean.
Ms. Hartnett's Earth Science17 Fault Line What type of fault is this?
Ms. Hartnett's Earth Science18 Black Smoker Black Smokers are chimney-like structures made up of sulfur-bearing minerals or sulfides, that come from beneath Earth's crust. They form when hot (roughly 350 C), mineral- rich water flows out onto the ocean floor through the volcanic lava on a mid-ocean ridge volcano.
Ms. Hartnett's Earth Science19 Mount Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption
Ms. Hartnett's Earth Science22 Tsunamis are primarily associated with earthquakes in oceanic and coastal regions. Landslides, volcanic eruptions, nuclear explosions, and even impacts of objects from outer space (such as meteorites, asteroids, and comets) can also generate tsunamis.
Ms. Hartnett's Earth Science23 The phenomenon we call a tsunami (soo-NAH-mee) is a series of waves of extremely long wavelength and long period generated in a body of water by an impulsive disturbance that displaces the water.
Ms. Hartnett's Earth Science26 Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which the strength and stiffness of a soil is reduced by earthquake shaking. This occurs in saturated soils, that is, soils in which the space between individual particles is completely filled with water.
Ms. Hartnett's Earth Science28 Island chains are formed when sections of the crust move over Hot Spots. I Hot spots are areas within the crust, not anywhere near plate boundaries, where lava rises through the crust.