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Glossary of Terms Critical Issues Forum 2009 Benchmark I Ontario High School Ontario, CA; U.S.A.

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Presentation on theme: "Glossary of Terms Critical Issues Forum 2009 Benchmark I Ontario High School Ontario, CA; U.S.A."— Presentation transcript:

1 Glossary of Terms Critical Issues Forum 2009 Benchmark I Ontario High School Ontario, CA; U.S.A.

2 Spartan and Sprint Antiballistic Missiles. © 2009 The Brookings Institution.

3 Agreed statements between the U.S. and Soviet Union to have a limit on Anti-Ballistic Missiles. Agreed statements between the U.S. and Soviet Union to have a limit on Anti-Ballistic Missiles. Godsberg, Alicia. Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty Federation of American Scientists.

4 BOLTON, JOHN R. The North Korea Climbdown Dow Jones & Company, Inc..

5 Arms control is an effort to stop other nations from using nuclear weapons since the past century. Arms control is an effort to stop other nations from using nuclear weapons since the past century. Paul K. Kerr, Amy F. Woolf, and Mary B. Nikitin. Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements.

6 Enewetak: atom bomb test, thermonuclear-weapon-at-Enewetak-atoll.

7 A fusion of plutonium or uranium, that is a split when it touches an atom. This releases a mass amount of thermal energy along with gamma rays. A fusion of plutonium or uranium, that is a split when it touches an atom. This releases a mass amount of thermal energy along with gamma rays. Atomic bomb.

8 Rich Legacy from Atoms for Peace. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. https://www.llnl.gov/str/March04/Vergino.html.

9 Atoms for Peace was a speech delivered by Dwight D. Eisenhower to the United Nations on using nuclear weapons peacefully. Atoms for Peace was a speech delivered by Dwight D. Eisenhower to the United Nations on using nuclear weapons peacefully. President Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" Speech. National Science Foundation.

10 Australia Group (AG) Argentina Republic of Korea AustraliaLatviaLatviaLithuania Belgium Luxembour g BulgariaMaltaCanada Netherland s Croatia New Zealand Republic of Cyprus Norway Czech Republic Poland DenmarkPortugalEstoniaRomania European Commission Slovak Republic FinlandSloveniaFranceSpainGermanySweden GreeceSwitzerlandHungary Republic of Turkey IcelandUkraine Ireland United Kingdom Italy United States Japan

11 Australia Group (AG) The Australia Group is an organization that tries to force transshipping or exporting committee to not help chemical or biological weapon (CBW) proliferation The Australia Group is an organization that tries to force transshipping or exporting committee to not help chemical or biological weapon (CBW) proliferation The (AG) meets every year to talk about haw they can make their efforts stronger against the proliferation. The (AG) meets every year to talk about haw they can make their efforts stronger against the proliferation. States that participate with the Australian Group are part of a group committed to the (CBW) proliferation and belong to the (CWC) chemical weapons convention, and (BWC) Biological weapons convention. States that participate with the Australian Group are part of a group committed to the (CBW) proliferation and belong to the (CWC) chemical weapons convention, and (BWC) Biological weapons convention.

12 Baruch Plan

13 In June 1946, The United States put together their first plan to non-proliferate weapons. In June 1946, The United States put together their first plan to non-proliferate weapons. This plan states that all states should stop making atomic weapons and give the Atomic Development Authority (ADA) all the information to their weapons. This plan states that all states should stop making atomic weapons and give the Atomic Development Authority (ADA) all the information to their weapons. "Baruch Plan." Everything 2. (11 February 2009). "Baruch Plan." Everything 2. (11 February 2009).

14 "The Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons." Middle powers initiative.

15 "The Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons." Australian government department of foreign affairs and trade. The Canberra Commission on the elimination of nuclear weapons was created in November of The commission was made to start to the path of having no more nuclear weapons and keeping it that way. The document explains the danger of nations being in possession of nuclear weapons. It tries to explain unnecessary threat of these weapons and wants to convince countries to dispose of these weapons and to stop making them as well.

16 Ipavec, Eugene. "opcw flag." Oranization or prohibition of chemical weapons. FOTW. opcw.html. OPCW logo

17 OPCW. "Challenge inspections." Challenge inspections. tasks/challenge-inspections/. The purpose of a challenge inspection is to investigate if a nation is going against the chemical weapons convention. Nobody is allowed to go against being inspected whenever the OPCW feels is necessary. Each inspection has to be approved by a council and director in the first 12 hours it is announced.

18 Department of state. "THE COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR TEST-BAN TREATY." THE COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR TEST-BAN TREATY. CTBO logo

19 Department of state. "THE COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR TEST-BAN TREATY." THE COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR TEST-BAN TREATY. The purpose of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test- ban Treaty is to prevent nations from testing and setting off nuclear weapons at any time. Each state involved with the treaty is obligated to follow the rules. There are no exceptions in any cases.

20 60palaismetvlaggenvolledig.jpg r_states_Conference_on_Disarmament_(CD)._1981.png

21 The Conference on Disarmament was established in This conference achieved 3 major disarmaments which are: “Ten Nation Committee on Disarmament, Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament, and the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament.” The Conference on Disarmament was established in This conference achieved 3 major disarmaments which are: “Ten Nation Committee on Disarmament, Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament, and the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament.” Conference on Disarmament Feb Conference on Disarmament

22

23 Confidence Building Measures creates agreements between various parties. This includes military activities. Also, it establishes rules to many things, all the parties participating have to agree. Confidence Building Measures creates agreements between various parties. This includes military activities. Also, it establishes rules to many things, all the parties participating have to agree. Maiese, Michelle. "Confidence-Building Measures." Beyond Intractability. Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: September 2003.http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/confidence_building_measures/ Confidence Building Measures

24 dralzheimer.jpg 87.gif

25 The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material is a program that allows states to have nuclear energy for safe and convenient reasons. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material is a program that allows states to have nuclear energy for safe and convenient reasons. Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, T.I.A.S Feb Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

26 International Science and Technology Center. ISTC 〈 =Eng.

27 International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) The International Science and Technology center is an international organization established by the European Union, Japan, Russia, and the United States in November It consists of 39 countries and is located in Moscow, Russia. It was made to stop the spread of nuclear weapons by making scientists and engineers from Russia and newly independent states work on peaceful projects instead of developing new weapons. The International Science and Technology center is an international organization established by the European Union, Japan, Russia, and the United States in November It consists of 39 countries and is located in Moscow, Russia. It was made to stop the spread of nuclear weapons by making scientists and engineers from Russia and newly independent states work on peaceful projects instead of developing new weapons. International Science and Technology Center. ISTC 〈 =Eng. International Science and Technology Center. ISTC

28 Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) Getty Images. Daylife. KEDO.

29 Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization, was established in 1994 by the United States, South Korea, and Japan. The purpose was to make the 1994 U.S.-North Korea Agreed Framework possible. The main priority was to build a light water reactor. It was going to be made to stop the building of a nuclear power plant, which might have been able to provide nuclear weapons in North Korea and to give heavy fuel oil to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. The lower projects were cancelled, because the DPRK was not doing their part of the deal. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization, was established in 1994 by the United States, South Korea, and Japan. The purpose was to make the 1994 U.S.-North Korea Agreed Framework possible. The main priority was to build a light water reactor. It was going to be made to stop the building of a nuclear power plant, which might have been able to provide nuclear weapons in North Korea and to give heavy fuel oil to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. The lower projects were cancelled, because the DPRK was not doing their part of the deal.. Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.

30 Light Water Reactor Pressurized Water Reactor Boiling Water Reactor  Images: European Nuclear Society. European Nuclear Society.

31 Light Water Reactor A light water reactor is a thermal reactor that works by using ordinary water as a neutron moderator. The two kinds of light water reactors are pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor. They are more inexpensive to build than heavy water reactors, however they make heat by nuclear fission. In a boiling water reactor the heated water evaporates. In a pressurized reactor, the steam goes to a second circuit, then a turbine rotates it, and it turns to water again. A light water reactor is a thermal reactor that works by using ordinary water as a neutron moderator. The two kinds of light water reactors are pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor. They are more inexpensive to build than heavy water reactors, however they make heat by nuclear fission. In a boiling water reactor the heated water evaporates. In a pressurized reactor, the steam goes to a second circuit, then a turbine rotates it, and it turns to water again..  European Nuclear Society. European Nuclear Society.

32 Low Enriched Uranium Container Iran Daily. "low enriched uranium container."

33 Low Enriched Uranium Low enriched uranium is uranium that currently contains an isotope of 235 in a concentration of less than twenty percent. web.ead.anl.gov. "low enriched uranium." web.ead.anl.gov/uranium/glossacro/dsp_wordpopup.cfm?word_id= k -.

34 Material protection, control and accountability (MPC+A) bnl.gov/nns. "brookhaven national laboratory."

35 Material Protection, Control and Accountability (MPC+A) In 2003, the United States and Russia met to discuss control and accountability of nuclear materials. nap.edu/catalog. "Description."

36 Megaton (MT) Estimating how a Megaton would look like: acceleratingfuture.com. "Accelerating Future." g/2006/08/six-places-to-drop-a-nuke-when-y.

37 Megaton (MT) Megaton is a nuclear weapon which is just as powerful as one million tons of TN. answers.com/topic. "Answers."

38 North Atlantic Treaty Organization What the NATO Means What the NATO Means The North Atlantic Treaty organization is alliance of 26 countries from North America and Europe determined to the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty signed on April The North Atlantic Treaty organization is alliance of 26 countries from North America and Europe determined to the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty signed on April How the NATO works NATO is an intergovernmental organization. The 26 member countries retain their full sovereignty. All NATO decisions are taken jointly by the member countries on the basis of consensus. Info: NATO - OTAN "The North Atlantic Treaty Organization at a glance." welcome/index.html picture: Shaileen's History Blog. shaileenshistoryblog.blogspot.com gif&imgrefurl=http://shaileenshistory blog.blogspot.com/2008/04/nato-and- warsaw- pact.html&usg=__GeYa7QCUhuRwgbv8J-. Background: Copyright © Iceland.org. the-delegation.

39 Nonproliferation The prevention of something increasing or spreading; "they protested that the nonproliferation treaty was just a plot to maintain the hegemony of those who already had nuclear weapons"; "nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation are closely related goals" The prevention of something increasing or spreading; "they protested that the nonproliferation treaty was just a plot to maintain the hegemony of those who already had nuclear weapons"; "nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation are closely related goals" Info: Copyright © 2009, Dictionary.com, LLC. "nonproliferation." Picture1:U.S. copyright laws. picture2:© 2006 Splendid Marbles.

40 PEACEFUL NUCLEAR EXPLOSION TREATY "limits on nuclear testing." Ctbto.

41 PEACEFUL NUCLEAR EXPLOSION TREATY The Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Treaty are nuclear explosions conducted for non-military purposes, such as activities related to economic development including the creation of canals. The Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Treaty are nuclear explosions conducted for non-military purposes, such as activities related to economic development including the creation of canals.

42 PEACEFUL NUCLEAR EXPLOSION TREATY It is a treaty between United States and the USSR on underground nuclear explosions for peaceful purpose. It was signed on May 28, It is a treaty between United States and the USSR on underground nuclear explosions for peaceful purpose. It was signed on May 28, "peaceful nuclear explosions." Wikipedia

43 PLUTONIUM Helmenstine, Anne M. "plutonium." Chemistry. about.

44 PLUTONIUM Plutonium is radiologically hazardous, and has a valuable energy source. It develops naturally. Plutonium was discovered in Plutonium is radiologically hazardous, and has a valuable energy source. It develops naturally. Plutonium was discovered in "plutonium." Radiation protection.

45 PROLIFERATION "wmd civil support." Proliferation press.

46 PROLIFERATION A rapid increase in the number of deadly weapons. A rapid increase in the number of deadly weapons. Russell, James A. "WMD Proliferation." Center for Contemporary Conflict.

47 RADIOLOGICAL WEAPON "Weapons of mass destruction." Crunchy roll.

48 RADIOLOGICAL WEAPON Usually a deadly bomb dispersing harmful radiotopes intended to achieve damage or contamination. Usually a deadly bomb dispersing harmful radiotopes intended to achieve damage or contamination. "radiological weapons." Wikidictionary.

49 Strategic Arms reduction Talks "Reagan Library." Reagan speeches.

50 Strategic Arms Reduction Talks The Strategic Arm Reductions Talks is about goals between the USA and the Soviet Union. They tried to stop the two countries from receiving strong and powerful weapons. These talks began in 1982 and lasted 20 years and ended the Soviet Union and the Cold War. The Strategic Arm Reductions Talks is about goals between the USA and the Soviet Union. They tried to stop the two countries from receiving strong and powerful weapons. These talks began in 1982 and lasted 20 years and ended the Soviet Union and the Cold War. "Reagan Library." Reagan speeches.

51 Strategic Nuclear Warheads "Strategic Command Chief Urges Quick Nuclear Weapons Modernization." Blog lines.

52 Strategic Nuclear Warheads A strategic nuclear warhead was a weapon that was made to bomb places like cities. The biggest nuclear weapon that ever existed during this time was about 20 megatons. A strategic nuclear warhead was a weapon that was made to bomb places like cities. The biggest nuclear weapon that ever existed during this time was about 20 megatons. "Strategic Command Chief Urges Quick Nuclear Weapons Modernization." Blog lines.

53 Taepodong “North Korean ballistic missiles fall down near Russia, stir up global controversy." Pravda.Ru. 11 Feb. 2009

54 Taepodong The Taepodong I is a missile made to be used as a nuclear delivery system, as well as a space launched vehicle. It is currently located in Korea. The Taepodong I is a missile made to be used as a nuclear delivery system, as well as a space launched vehicle. It is currently located in Korea. K wikipedia Foundation, Inc. 11 Feb

55 Thermonuclear weapons Thermonuclear weapons "Mk.17 Thermonuclear Weapon." The x-Hunters. 11 Feb

56 Thermonuclear Weapon Thermonuclear weapons are weapons that get their heat and power from fussion as well as fission. They result in explosions. Thermonuclear weapons are weapons that get their heat and power from fussion as well as fission. They result in explosions. wikipedia foundations Inc. 11 Feb

57 Thirteen practical steps Thirteen practical steps "Publications." criticalwill.org. Kache Productions. 11 Feb. 2009

58 Thirteen Practical Steps The Thirteen Practical Steps refers to the decision that the USA Congress made in the effort of “principles and objectives for nuclear Non-proliferation and disarmament” The Thirteen Practical Steps refers to the decision that the USA Congress made in the effort of “principles and objectives for nuclear Non-proliferation and disarmament” green peace. 11 Feb. 2009ratio and disarmament.” green peace. 11 Feb. 2009ratio and disarmament.”

59 Vertical Proliferation

60 Vertical Proliferation In the year of 1970 the Non- Proliferation Treaty entered into action. Both the weapons states and the non-nuclear weapons sates agreed that all parties had obligations to the NPT by committing both non-proliferation and complete nuclear disarmament as an essential component to achieve global security. China, France, UK, US, USSR (the nuclear weapons states) want to end with the race of nuclear arms and negotiate in the Article of VI. Also in the Article VI it states that the non-nuclear weapons will have to go through International Atomic Energy Agency with the acceptance of the safeguards. In the year of 1970 the Non- Proliferation Treaty entered into action. Both the weapons states and the non-nuclear weapons sates agreed that all parties had obligations to the NPT by committing both non-proliferation and complete nuclear disarmament as an essential component to achieve global security. China, France, UK, US, USSR (the nuclear weapons states) want to end with the race of nuclear arms and negotiate in the Article of VI. Also in the Article VI it states that the non-nuclear weapons will have to go through International Atomic Energy Agency with the acceptance of the safeguards. There has been a lack of the disarmament of the weapons because it takes 13 Practical Steps to disarm the nuclear weapons. One of the reasons its failing to move the nuclear weapons is because there is a lack of political issues in these countries. There has been a lack of the disarmament of the weapons because it takes 13 Practical Steps to disarm the nuclear weapons. One of the reasons its failing to move the nuclear weapons is because there is a lack of political issues in these countries. The Nuclear Weapon Archive. Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. "Disarmament the Missing Link to an equitable Non-Proliferation Regime."


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