Presentation on theme: "Ground-based Lidar Network to Provide Ozone and Aerosol Data for Air-quality Study and GEO-CAP mission AQRS, Nov. 17, 2011 Mike Newchurch 1, Shi Kuang."— Presentation transcript:
Ground-based Lidar Network to Provide Ozone and Aerosol Data for Air-quality Study and GEO-CAP mission AQRS, Nov. 17, 2011 Mike Newchurch 1, Shi Kuang 1, R. J. Alvarez 3, John Burris 2, John Hair 5, Mike Hardesty 3, A. O. Langford 3, Stuart McDermid 6, Tom McGee 2, Brad Pierce 4, Christoph Senff 3, Lihua Wang 1 1 UAHuntsville 2 NASA/GSFC 3 NOAA/ESRL 4 University of Wisconsin 5 NASA/LaRC 6 NASA/JPL
Outline I. Motivation II. Scientific investigations III. Hardware configurations
I. Motivation of lidar measurements GEO-CAPE will measure tropospheric gases and aerosols at ~8km and hourly resolution. Vertical resolution is on the order of 5-10km in the troposphere. This vertical resolution is inadequate to resolve laminar structures that characterize tropospheric ozone and aerosols. Furthermore, GEO-CAPE information content in the PBL will likely be inadequate to resolve the processes responsible for air quality variability. We seek, therefore, to augment the spaceborne measurements with a ground-based measurement system. Ozonesondes are extensively used in various atmospheric chemistry studies because of their low upfront cost and well-characterized behavior. However, the whole process for a sonde launch typically requires four hours. And four-hour ozonesonde resolution is prohibitively expensive. We therefore consider lidars to provide the necessary spatial and temporal resolution. JPL-Table Mountain Facility http://tmf-lidar.jpl.nasa.gov/index.htm 3
Comparison of the techniques for ozone observation a For OMI tropospheric ozone retrieval [Liu et al. 2010], [Worden et al. 2007]. b For ground-based only. The airborne lidar system can measure ozone with a 600-m spatial resolution, e.g., [Langford et al. 2011]. c For ground-base system, e.g., Sunnesson et al.1994; Proffitt and Langford 1997; Kuang et al. 2011. The temporal resolution is strongly related to the retrieval uncertainty. Generally longer integration time will reduce the uncertainty arising from statistical error. d The estimated cost is based on $800/launch and launching 6 sondes every day. e Fishman J. et al. manuscript, in prep. OzonesondeGround-based lidarSun-synchronous Satellite (OMI) a Geostationary satellite (GEO- CAPE) e Vertical resolution ~100m100-1000m10-14km Spatial coverage PointPoint b GlobalLand and coastlines over 10-60 o N band Spatial resolution N/AN/A b 13X48km at nadir8km Temporal resolution Typically 1 week, max 4 hr 2-30 min c Typically 1 day1 hr Meas. uncertainty 10%Typically 10% at the near range and 20% at the far range 6%-35% Cost Typically $40k/year, max $1,752k/year d ~$200-300k/year for fixed station high Major strength well-characterized, low up- front cost, good vertical resolution, High temporal resolution, low cost for frequent routine measurement global coverage, high accuracy on total column retrieval High spatio-temporal resolution relative to sun-sny satellite Major weakness Low temporal resolutionUnable to measure ozone above thick cloud, higher up- front cost relative to sonde Low vertical resolution (particularly limited to resolve PBL) 4
O3 measurement with a 4-hour temporal resolution 5
II. Scientific investigations addressed by the lidar network
May 01May 02May 03May 04May 05May 06May 07May 08 May 3, 2010 Daytime PBL top collapsed Model (RAQMS) validation (simulated by B. Pierce) 8 May 4 May 5 May 6 (high PBL O3) Missed May 7 EPA surface
Co-located ceilometer backscatter Low-level jet Co-located wind profiler Positive correlation of ozone and aerosol due to transport Oct. 4, 2008 Kuang et al. Atmospheric Environment 2011 Aerosol Lidar O3 Transport: Nocturnal O3 enhancement associated with low-level jet Oct. 2, 08 Oct. 3, 08 Oct. 1, 08 Oct. 5, 08 Oct. 6, 08 Oct. 4, 08 Surface O3 and convective boundary layer height Higher increasing rate of the surface O3 due to the low-level transport on the previous day
Local time GOME total O 3 Nov. 5 Stratospheric O 3, zero RH Sonde Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport and its CMAQ Model simulation, Nov. 5, 2010 Huntsville Lidar O3 Ozonesonde showing the high O3 and dry layer 10 Modeled by Arastoo Pour-Biazar
High-resolution PBL lidar observation suggests both UV and Vis radiances required to capture significant PBL signal for satellite Huntsville lidar observation on Aug. 4, 2010 Lidar obs. convolved with OMI UV averaging kernel---- unable to capture the highly variable ozone structure in PBL Lidar obs. Convolved with OMI UV-Vis averaging kernel- ---Captures the PBL ozone structure. X. Liu et al. 11
TOPAZ applications TexAQS 2006: Quantifying horizontal transport of O 3 downwind from Houston and Dallas Cross sections of ozone downwind of Houston measured with TOPAZ on 08/14/2006. Ozone fluxes are computed for each transect by integrating above-background ozone across the plume and multiplying with horizontal wind speed measured with radar wind profilers. Ozone fluxes as a function of plume age downwind from Houston and Dallas (includes data from TexAQS 2000). Senff, C. J. et al., 2010: Airborne lidar measurements of ozone flux downwind of Houston and Dallas, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D20307, doi:10.1029/2009JD013689.
TOPAZ applications Pre-CalNex 2009: Orographic lifting & long-range transport of O 3 originating in the Los Angeles Basin SMOG model predictions (top) compared with TOPAZ lidar observations (bottom). 48-h (solid) and 60-h (dotted) forward trajectories suggesting long-range transport aloft of O 3 from Los Angeles to Utah and Colorado. Langford, A. O., et al., 2010: Long-range transport of ozone from the Los Angeles Basin: A case study, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2010GL042507.
Stratospheric contribution to high surface ozone in Colorado during springtime A.O. Langford, K.C. Aikin 1, C.S. Eubank 1, E.J Williams 1 Chemical Sciences Division ESRL, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado USA 1 also at Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA. Langford NOAA/ESRL/CSD Stratospheric Tropospheric
E.J. Williams Surface O 3 and CO anticorrelated Langford NOAA/ESRL/CSD
CDPHE and NPS monitors Surface O 3 increased from 55 to 100 ppbv in RMNP! Langford NOAA/ESRL/CSD
JPL/TMF ozone & water vapor lidars Ozone (left) and water vapor (Right) with 10 minute resolution showing the progression of a stratospheric intrusion and the anti-correlation between ozone and water. O3H2O 17 S. McDermid slides
19 UAH NASA/LaRC JPL/TMF NOAA/ESRL Initiative sites of the ground-based lidar network to provide O3 and aerosol data for air-quality study and GEO-CAP mission 19 NASA/GSFC
UAHuntsville future configuration 1.3- λ ( 284-289-299) system to minimize aerosol interference 2.Adding a 1-inch mini receiver channel to reduce the lowest measurement altitude to ~100m from the current 500m Schematic diagram of the future transmitters, wavelength pairs, and their measurement ranges. Different colors refer to the different PMT channels. 20
Diagram of the future receiving system - 3 receiver channels covering 0.1-12km 21
TOPAZ: NOAA’s airborne Ozone/Aerosol Lidar (TOPAZ = Tunable Optical Profiler for Aerosols and oZone) Compact, light-weight, all solid state lidar 3 tunable UV wavelengths Designed for nadir-looking deployment on NOAA Twin Otter Measures ozone and aerosol backscatter profiles Altitude coverage: from near the surface up to 5 km MSL Resolution (O 3 ): 90 m vertical, 600 m horizontal Precision (O 3 ) : 2-15 ppb
TOPAZ modifications for ground-based, scanning operation 1.Invert telescope to zenith-looking 2.Install in truck with roof top scanner
Scan strategy & expected performance of ground-based TOPAZ Anticipated instrument performance Time resolution: 1 min per angle; 5 min per scan sequence Range/altitude resolution: 90 m; 3 – 90 m Range/altitude coverage: 400 m – 4 km; 17 m – 4 km AGL Precision: 1 – 10 ppb (SNR and range dependent) 90º 10º 2º 17 m AGL ~4 km AGL 3-angle scan sequence designed to provide composite O 3 profiles from 17 m to approx. 4 km AGL. Horizontal stares will be performed occasionally.
Deployments of ground-based TOPAZ in FY 2012 1.Uintah Basin Ozone Study (UBOS) The UBOS study is designed to examine in detail the role of local atmospheric chemistry and meteorology in producing high wintertime O 3 concentrations in the Uintah Basin in NE Utah. TOPAZ will provide horizontal and vertical profiles of ozone as well as estimates of boundary layer height. Time frame: February/March 2012 2. Local measurements (Boulder, Fritz Peak) TOPAZ will measure vertical profiles of ozone at regular intervals at NOAA/ESRL in Boulder or at the Fritz Peak Observatory to a) provide a vertical context for the routine surface O 3 observations in the greater Denver area and b) extend the record of mid-tropospheric ozone profile measurements by Langford et al. from the 1990s. Time frame: April – September 2012
LaRC ozone lidar Telescope Lidar Control DAQ System Receiver Box Laser Transmitter 1. Ground-based, but can be modified to a mobile system 2. Tunable two wavelengths within 282-313 nm for O3 measurement 3. 527nm for aerosol measurement 26
GSFC tropospheric ozone lidar 27 Schematic of the Non-Linear Optics bench within the laser. The Nd-YAG laser is mounted upside down on the underside of the NLO bench. The 1064 nm pump beam enters the NLO bench at the lower right.
Comparison of the target configurations of the O3 lidars at different sites SiteCharacteristicsStrengthWeakness JPL/TMFQuadruple YAG pumped raman laser, 3-λ,3-receiver 355nm channel measuring aerosol Fixed location, Limited daytime measurements NOAA/ESRLNd:YLF pumped Ce:LiCAF tunable 2-λ,1-receiver, scanning, mobile Tunable wavelength, Scanning, mobile Only 2-λ, potential aerosol interference, limited alt measurement range UAHuntsvilleQuadruple YAG pumped raman laser, 3-λ,3-receiver Low PBL measurement, dual- DIAL removing aerosol effect Fixed location, limited alt measurement range during daytime NASA/GSFCHigh freq. OPO, 2-λ,1-receiverTunable wavelength, can be mobile Potential aerosol interference NASA/LaRCNd:YLF pumped Ce:LiCAF tunable 2-λ,1-receiver, scanning, mobile Tunable wavelength, Scanning, mobile Only 2-λ, potential aerosol interference, limited alt measurement range