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Ozone in Winter in the Upper Green River Basin Greater Yellowstone Area Clean Air Partnership Meeting October 15, 2008 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Ozone in Winter in the Upper Green River Basin Greater Yellowstone Area Clean Air Partnership Meeting October 15, 2008 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ozone in Winter in the Upper Green River Basin Greater Yellowstone Area Clean Air Partnership Meeting October 15, 2008 1

2 Jonah/Pinedale 2005 2

3 Sublette County Wells 3

4 Sublette Co. Gas Production 1980- 2007 4

5 How Ozone is Formed  Formed through a complex series of reactions between nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds driven by sunlight.  Generally thought to occur under sunny, high temperature situations (i.e., summer months in urban areas) 5

6 Changes to 8-hr Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard  Previous Standard: 3-year average of the 4 th highest daily 8-hour averaged ozone concentration = 0.08 ppm  Standard Revised in May 2008: 3-year average of the 4 th highest daily 8-hour averaged ozone concentration = 0.075 ppm  The primary (health-based) and secondary (welfare- based) standard were set at the same value 6

7 History of Air Monitoring in the Upper Green River Basin  Began ozone monitoring in 2005 Standard was 0.08 (~0.084) Found elevated levels: 4 th high 8-hour 0.080 on February 24th (Yellowstone monitor that day was 0.049) Confirmed that monitor was functioning properly  Recurred in 2006 4 th high 8-hour 0.075 on February 27 th (Yellowstone monitor that day was 0.056) 7

8

9 2005 & 2006 Top 5 8-hour ozone concentrations JonahBoulderDaniel South $ DateppmDateppmDateppm 02/03/050.09802/20/050.08907/08/050.070 02/26/050.08902/03/050.08107/07/050.067 01/24/050.07802/04/050.08007/22/050.066 02/04/050.07602/24/050.08007/11/050.066 02/27/050.07502/19/050.07907/03/050.064 02/27/060.093*04/21/060.08102/25/060.083 02/25/060.081*06/18/060.07905/02/060.076 05/02/060.07105/02/060.07604/21/060.075 06/11/060.07006/01/060.07302/27/060.075 07/15/060.07008/18/060.07206/18/060.073 * Less than 75% data completeness $ Began operation in July 2005

10 Theories on Causes  Monitoring error  Stratospheric Intrusion  Transport  Locally Formed Jonah 12:00 2/27/06

11 Theories on Causes - conclusions  Monitoring error: Not Likely Checked certifications Additional 3 rd party audits Elevated concentrations at multiple monitors Winter 2006 put Chemiluminescent ozone monitor at Jonah to check for interference and found none  Stratospheric Intrusion: Not Likely Tight inversion and stagnant conditions for several days  Transport: Slight Possibility Other areas had not reported high wintertime conditions

12 Theories on Causes (cont.)  Locally Formed: Most Likely Precursors emitted in area Suspected tight inversion Stagnant conditions Sunny, snow cover 2005

13 Ozone and Wind Speeds, Jonah, WY, Feb 1-4, 2005 Slide compliments of NOAA

14 AQD Response to Ozone Events  Concerns about elevated concentrations Potential for NAAQS violation Health effects on local public More development planned in SW Wyoming  Requested proposals for an Ambient and Meteorological Field Study

15 AQD Initiated an Intensive Field Study in Jan. 2007  Study Objectives: Determine meteorological conditions Identify causes of high ozone Identify ozone distribution Identify role of ozone precursors Develop tools to model ozone formation 15

16 2007 Ozone Monitoring Field Study

17 2007 Continuous Measurements  Continued monitoring at Boulder, Jonah, and Daniel South  CastNet continued collecting ozone data  Wind speed with height at airport  Seven temporary stations to measure wind speed, wind direction and ozone

18 2007 Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs)  Operational forecasts Elevated ozone events likely Trigger Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs)  IOP Measurement Objectives Determine structure of atmosphere during high ozone events: How shallow is the inversion? What does the vertical ozone profile look like? What differences exist between Jonah, Boulder, Daniel? Determine spatial variability of ozone concentrations around Upper Green River Basin Determine VOC concentrations

19 2007 IOP Measurements  Temporary equipment to measure upper level winds, temp., relative humidity and ozone at Airport  Aircraft measurements of ozone, temp., VOCs

20 Summary: 2007 vs. 2005-2006 Weather Patterns  Weather conditions associated with high ozone events in 2005-2006 did not occur during 2007 Lack of snow cover in 2007 Stronger upper level winds in study area in 2007 Stronger surface winds in 2007 Morning surface inversions did not persist

21 Meteorology  Why important?  Ozone a secondary pollutant  Ultraviolet light (sunshine)  Temperature inversion 21

22 Ozone: Sunlight  UV energy from the sun is required to produce ozone  Historically, scientists believed ozone can’t be formed in low temperatures or areas with low sun angles (i.e., winter)  Study measured UV energy  Result: when ground is highly reflective, UV energy is doubled 22

23 Ozone: Sunlight Albedo = 0.81 (snow) Albedo = 0.04 (bare ground) 23

24 Preliminary conclusions  In the winter: Temperature inversion Still air Snow cover Sunshine Ozone precursors present in UGRB Produce elevated ozone 24

25 2008 Field Study Objectives  Develop a more complete characterization of winter ozone events in the Upper Green River Basin  Provide data for Development of a conceptual model of ozone formation More accurate numerical simulations of high ozone events 25

26 2008 Study Approach  Study design based on 2005 & 2006 high ozone event data Identify meteorological and air quality modeling data requirements Identify data needed to evaluate initial theories Develop episode forecasting protocol  Use field study website to post daily forecasts and raw data  Conduct measurements: mid-January – March 2008 Continuous Measurements to supplement existing network Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs) 26

27 2008 UGWOS Continuous Sampling Routine data collection at existing sites (Boulder, Jonah, Daniel South, Pinedale-CASTNET) Airport operations Surface ozone Surface winds Sodar Site Upper level winds, temp Detected inversions x Five temporary surface sites x Wind speed, wind direction and ozone 27

28 2008 UGWOS IOP Measurements  Inversion layer measurement and columnar ozone measurement at airport: 8:00, 11:00, 13:00, 17:00  VOC/Carbon compounds sampling Three hour integrated samples at Jonah, Boulder, Daniel: 4:00 – 7:00, 9:00 – 12:00, 14:00 – 17:00 MST Aircraft grab samples  Aircraft Morning and afternoon flights Ozone, PM 2.5, Temperature, Pressure 28

29 Wyoming Daily Max 8-Hr O 3 : 2008 UGWOS Study Period 29

30 8575 Compliments of Shell 2008

31 7585 Compliments of Shell 2008

32 11 March @ 6:00 pm12 March @ 4:00 pm Elevated O3 below inversion Inversion at 100 m Different wind directions above and below inversion O3 Temp No Inversion, no elevated O3 2008 Pinedale Airport Vertical Profiles Raw data – subject to change 32

33 Role of Mixing Heights  Elevated O3 when MH < 150 m agl  Note mini-SODAR max range = 250 m agl 33 SODAR Mixing Height Daily Max 8-Hr Avg O3 at Boulder

34 Photos from Boulder Visibility Camera Feb. 19, 2008Feb. 19, 2007 34

35 35 Typical characteristics of high ozone episodes Extensive snow cover, light winds, clear to partly cloudy skies Strong, surface based inversion Precursors trapped in very shallow layer (less than about 150 m) –High morning NOx and VOC –Limited horizontal mixing results in strong spatial gradients Morning NW to afternoon SE wind reversal –Most common at Jonah; also seen at other sites Highest ozone nearly always found at Boulder; lowest at Daniel and Cora in 2008

36 Conditions Conducive to Ozone Formation  The Three S’s: Surface winds are light Snow cover is fairly complete Skies are clear to partly cloudy  And more S’s: Stable shallow surface layer with strong surface inversion 36

37 37

38 38 What’s being done to reduce emissions associated with oil and gas exploration and production?

39 Ozone Precursor Sources Drill rigs Venting and Flaring from Well completion activities Gas production Vehicles 39

40 Emission controls: Rig Engines  State has no authority to regulate “non-road” sources  BLM’s Jonah Infill Record of Decision enabled NOx reductions improvements to rig – natural gas engines  BLM’s Pinedale Anticline Record of Decision requires operators to drastically reduce NOx emissions 40

41 Shell’s Nabors 784 Drill Rig

42 42

43 Insulated Urea storage tank used w/SCR to control NOx emissions from the diesel generators. Urea Tank

44 44

45 45

46 Cat 3512 (~1500 HP each) Diesel Generator Stacks w/SCR Note: Typically all 3 generators operate only during the drilling of the first 2,500 feet of each well with 2 generators operating for the rest of the drilling.

47 Well Completion Emission Controls 47

48 48

49 Portable 4-Phase Completion Equipment

50 Ozone Precursor Sources that DEQ Controls  Gas production 50

51 51

52 Well Separator

53 53 Dehydrator & Pneumatic Pump Control Device

54 Uncontrolled Condensate & Produced Water Storage Tanks 200 bbl storage tanks

55 Multiple Well Facility Dehy combustors Tanks combustor Dehy Contact Tower Heater Stacks

56 Immediate Response to the Ozone Challenge  Preliminary conclusion is that VOC controls should be the primary focus  Control existing uncontrolled sources by Jan 2009  Increase inspections to look at all fields in Sublette County  Voluntary reduction of VOC producing activities during times when met. conditions appear conducive to ozone formation 56

57 Additional Responses  Improve precursor emission inventories  Revise oil & gas best available control technology (BACT) requirements  Interim offsets permitting policy 57

58 Permitting New Sources  AQD can no longer conclude that increases in NOx and/or VOC in Sublette County can be justified  Interim permitting policy was implemented on July 21, 2008 All applications will require a demonstration that the proposed facility will not prevent attainment or maintenance of an air quality standard 58

59 Interim Policy (con’t.)  Offset must be in Sublette County  Offset must be enforceable, or approved by AQD  Reductions must occur after 4/1/08  Offset Ratios For applications currently under AQD review: 1:1 offsets for NOx and VOCs For applications received after August 1, 2008: Offset of 1.5:1 for VOC and 1.1:1 for NOx  Currently are approximately 80 applications where offsets are being discussed with AQD 59

60 Upcoming Monitoring  Continued operation of continuous monitors  Move the Jonah monitor  Adding a monitor in Pinedale – operating in November  Special winter monitoring in 2009  AQD will conduct forecasting for winter of 2009 to inform public and operators 60

61 Additional work  Further VOC analysis  Develop a full scale ambient ozone model Modeling is necessary to predict improvements from emission reduction activities 61

62 AQD Monitoring Site 4 th high 8-hour ozone values (ppm) Site2005200620072005-2007 Average 2008 YTD value Thunder Basin 0.0630.072 0.0690.074 Campbell County 0.0630.0650.0720.0670.050 Yellowstone0.0600.0690.065 0.061 Boulder0.0790.0720.0670.0720.101 Jonah0.0750.0690.0680.0700.082 These sites have 3 complete years of data for 2005-2007 62

63 Ozone Non-attainment Implementation Timeline  March 12, 2008: Final Rule signed  May 27, 2008: Final Rule took effect  March 12, 2009: State designation package (for attainment/non-attainment areas) due to EPA  March 2010: EPA makes final designations on attainment/non-attainment areas  2013: Non-attainment SIPs due 63

64 What will non-attainment mean  Requests for new permits will be subject to new requirements, which include offsets and “Lowest Achievable Emission Rate” control requirements for large sources – currently, DEQ applies “Best Available Control Technology (BACT) to new equipment.  NO x and VOC Controls for existing sources.  “Conformity determinations” on all federal actions – places additional constraints on federal agencies to conform with DEQ’s nonattainment strategy.  There could be requirements imposed on non-industrial sources; as example is an “inspection and maintenance” program for all mobile sources in the area. DEQ will need to devise requirements that will be effective and make sense for the Upper Green. These may look like what other states have done or be entirely different. Ultimately emission reduction requirements must demonstrate success both through “modeled” attainment and acceptable actual ozone levels at the monitors. 64


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