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Housing Segregation and Spatial Mismatch Race and Ethnicity Population Trends and Policies.

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Presentation on theme: "Housing Segregation and Spatial Mismatch Race and Ethnicity Population Trends and Policies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Housing Segregation and Spatial Mismatch Race and Ethnicity Population Trends and Policies

2 Types of Discrimination Individual discriminationIndividual discrimination Institutional discriminationInstitutional discrimination Structural discriminationStructural discrimination Source: Pincus, F. L. (1994). "From Individual to Structural Discrimination." In F. L. Pincus and H. J. Ehrlich, Race and Ethnic Conflict: Contending Views on Prejudice, Discrimination and Ethnoviolence. Boulder, Colo.: Westviewc Population Trends and Policies

3 Individual discrimination The behavior of individual members of one race/ethnic/gender group that is intended to have a differential and/or harmful effect on the members of another race/ethnic/gender group.The behavior of individual members of one race/ethnic/gender group that is intended to have a differential and/or harmful effect on the members of another race/ethnic/gender group. Source: Pincus, F. L. (1994). "From Individual to Structural Discrimination." In F. L. Pincus and H. J. Ehrlich, Race and Ethnic Conflict: Contending Views on Prejudice, Discrimination and Ethnoviolence. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Population Trends and Policies

4 Institutional discrimination The policies of the dominant race/ethnic/gender institutions and the behavior of individuals who control these institutions and implement policies that are intended to have a differential and/or harmful effect on minority race/ethnic/gender groups.The policies of the dominant race/ethnic/gender institutions and the behavior of individuals who control these institutions and implement policies that are intended to have a differential and/or harmful effect on minority race/ethnic/gender groups. Source: Pincus, F. L. (1994). "From Individual to Structural Discrimination." In F. L. Pincus and H. J. Ehrlich, Race and Ethnic Conflict: Contending Views on Prejudice, Discrimination and Ethnoviolence. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Population Trends and Policies

5 Structural discrimination The policies of dominant race/ethnic/ gender institutions and the behavior of the individuals who implement these policies and control these institutions, which are race/ethnic/gender neutral in intent but which have a differential and/or harmful effect on minority race/ethnic/gender groups.The policies of dominant race/ethnic/ gender institutions and the behavior of the individuals who implement these policies and control these institutions, which are race/ethnic/gender neutral in intent but which have a differential and/or harmful effect on minority race/ethnic/gender groups. Source: Pincus, F. L. (1994). "From Individual to Structural Discrimination." In F. L. Pincus and H. J. Ehrlich, Race and Ethnic Conflict: Contending Views on Prejudice, Discrimination and Ethnoviolence. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Population Trends and Policies

6 Residential Segregation Index of Dissimilarity The percentage of blacks that would need to move to a different (whiter) neighborhood in order to achieve integration with whites. Population Trends and Policies

7 Applied Demography

8 Population Trends and Policies

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13 Discrimination in housing in metropolitan areas has resulted in the concentration of blacks in central city neighborhoods.Discrimination in housing in metropolitan areas has resulted in the concentration of blacks in central city neighborhoods. The constrained location of blacks reduces the job opportunities available to blacks.The constrained location of blacks reduces the job opportunities available to blacks. The suburbanization of employment exacerbates the reduced job opportunities for blacks in central city neighborhoods.The suburbanization of employment exacerbates the reduced job opportunities for blacks in central city neighborhoods. Spatial Mismatch A Consequence of Segregation? Population Trends and Policies

14 Residential and employment spatial patterns contribute to the employment disadvantage experienced by blacks in metropolitan areas.Residential and employment spatial patterns contribute to the employment disadvantage experienced by blacks in metropolitan areas. Discrimination in the residential real estate market and other factors resulting in segregation are precursors to spatial mismatch.Discrimination in the residential real estate market and other factors resulting in segregation are precursors to spatial mismatch. Discrimination may be a motivating factor in firm location decisions (i.e. access to a predominantly white work force) resulting in spatial mismatch.Discrimination may be a motivating factor in firm location decisions (i.e. access to a predominantly white work force) resulting in spatial mismatch. SPATIAL MISMATCH & RACIAL DISCRIMINATION Population Trends and Policies

15 SPATIAL MISMATCH The Index of Dissimilarity Population Trends and Policies Source: Stephen Raphael and Michael Stoll Modest Progress: The Narrowing Spatial Mismatch Between Blacks and Jobs in the 1990s. The Brookings Institution: Washington, DC.

16 SPATIAL MISMATCH The Index of Dissimilarity Population Trends and Policies Source: Stephen Raphael and Michael Stoll Modest Progress: The Narrowing Spatial Mismatch Between Blacks and Jobs in the 1990s. The Brookings Institution: Washington, DC.

17 SPATIAL MISMATCH The Index of Dissimilarity Population Trends and Policies Source: Stephen Raphael and Michael Stoll Modest Progress: The Narrowing Spatial Mismatch Between Blacks and Jobs in the 1990s. The Brookings Institution: Washington, DC.

18 In 2000, no group was more physically isolated from jobs than blacks.In 2000, no group was more physically isolated from jobs than blacks. During the 1990s, blacks’ overall proximity to jobs improved slightly, narrowing the gap in “spatial mismatch” between blacks and whites by 13 percent.During the 1990s, blacks’ overall proximity to jobs improved slightly, narrowing the gap in “spatial mismatch” between blacks and whites by 13 percent. Metro areas with higher levels of black-white residential segregation exhibit a higher degree of spatial mismatch between blacks and jobs.Metro areas with higher levels of black-white residential segregation exhibit a higher degree of spatial mismatch between blacks and jobs. The residential movement of black households within metropolitan areas drove most of the overall decline in spatial mismatch for blacks in the 1990s.The residential movement of black households within metropolitan areas drove most of the overall decline in spatial mismatch for blacks in the 1990s. Population Trends and Policies Source: Stephen Raphael and Michael Stoll Modest Progress: The Narrowing Spatial Mismatch Between Blacks and Jobs in the 1990s. The Brookings Institution: Washington, DC. SPATIAL MISMATCH

19 Blacks residing in metropolitan areas in the Northeast and Midwest were the most physically isolated from employment opportunities.Blacks residing in metropolitan areas in the Northeast and Midwest were the most physically isolated from employment opportunities. Blacks residing in the South were the least isolated.Blacks residing in the South were the least isolated. While average mismatch indices declined in all areas, the declines were smallest in the Northeast.While average mismatch indices declined in all areas, the declines were smallest in the Northeast. Midwestern metro areas, which had exhibited the highest average degree of mismatch between blacks and jobs in 1990, experienced a comparatively large decline in overall mismatch during the decade.Midwestern metro areas, which had exhibited the highest average degree of mismatch between blacks and jobs in 1990, experienced a comparatively large decline in overall mismatch during the decade. The level of mismatch between blacks and jobs proved most severe in metros where a relatively large percentage of the population is black.The level of mismatch between blacks and jobs proved most severe in metros where a relatively large percentage of the population is black. Population Trends and Policies Source: Stephen Raphael and Michael Stoll Modest Progress: The Narrowing Spatial Mismatch Between Blacks and Jobs in the 1990s. The Brookings Institution: Washington, DC. SPATIAL MISMATCH

20 1.Flip a coin two times and count the number of heads. If both your flips were heads then you are in the minority and you have no preference for neighborhood composition. 2.If you are in the majority, flip a coin five times and count the number of heads. This is the number of persons from another group that you are willing to live near. 3.Everyone flip a coin two times and count the number of heads. If both your flips were heads then you need to move to another neighborhood based on your preferences if you are majority. 4.Find a house (desk) in a neighborhood where you would like to live. If someone else would also like to live in that house, flip for it with heads winning and the loser moving on. 5.When everyone has settled in a new neighborhood, repeat steps 3 and 4. Population Trends and Policies INTEGRATION EXERCISE


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