Presentation on theme: "Nasser 1 1 Colleen Mainger, The Things I Do For This Class, (Aurora, Self Published, 2014)"— Presentation transcript:
Nasser 1 1 Colleen Mainger, The Things I Do For This Class, (Aurora, Self Published, 2014)
Summary of Nasser’s Rise 1919 Zaghlul & Wafd Party attend Paris Peace Conference to demand self-determination for Egypt/freedom from Britain – largely ignored by Allies 2 1922/23 Britain releases Egypt from Protectorate and they write a constitution where Britain still has rights over Suez Canal & foreign affairs 1936 King Faud dies, King Farouk takes over; Anglo- Egyptian Treaty signed which reduces Britain's presence to the Suez Canal only (initially popular) 3 1939—WWII Egypt remains neutral but controlled & used by Allied Britain 2 https://ia600404.us.archive.org/35/items/cu31924027900921/cu31924027900921.pdf 3 Arthur Goldschmidt, A Concise History of the Middle East (Boulder: Westview Press, 2002), p. 249.
Summary of Nasser’s Rise 1942 Feb. 4 Incident—Britain forces Egypt to promote the Wafd Party back to leadership 1948 War loss to Israel, plus economic problems, plus British presence in Suez area creates tension, anxiety to be free 1951 Wafd Party ends Anglo-Egyptian treaty, British refuse to negotiate 1952 Free Officers, including Nasser, take over government creating the Revolutionary Command Council 1954 Nasser becomes President of Egypt 4 4 Mariam Habibi, History of Europe and the Middle East (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), p. 314-317.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Born 1918, raised in the time of Egypt’s protectorate status; participated in anti-British demonstrations in the 30s Young soldier in the 1948 war, fought in the Negev, blamed King Farouk & current government for the loss 5 Nasser was one of the Free Officers who helped overthrow the King in 1952 Muhammad Naguib elected as President—popular war hero 6 and older-give more legitimacy to the revolution? 7 Nasser as VP Considered a military coup, often called the 1952 Revolution* *What constitutes a revolution? 5 Habibi, Mariam, History of Europe and the Middle East p. 317. 6 “Free Officer Coup in Egypt 1952” http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/echo/egypt1952b.htm 7 http://news.egypt.com/en/egyptian-revolution-of-1952.html
Did the CIA help in 1952? U.S. goals in 1952 revolved around containing communism, including stabilizing weak countries susceptible to socialist ideals Egypt was beholden to Britain, and angry at Israel If the US put someone compliant in charge of Egypt they would have an Arab/Middle East ally The US also wanted to end British colonial interests and oil dominance in the region, and enter it themselves 8 CIA operatives met with Nasser in 1952 to discuss the coup of King Farouk; mostly let the coup happen 9 Money was involved; Nasser had access to millions of $US 10 8 http://www.khilafah.com/index.php/news-watch/middle-east/16906-the-cia-said-find-an-islamic-billy-graham 9 http://www.surrenderingislam.com/essential-reading/1951-1953-egypt-nasser-moslem-billy-graham 10 I read it somewhere but now I can’t find it. Don’t judge.
Final Moves By 1954 Nasser had moved Naguib from power and outlawed all opposing political parties Muslim Brotherhood attempted an assassination (staged?) 11 which solidified people’s love for Nasser “They can kill Nasser but another will take his place! The revolution will live on!” 12 11 http://www.khilafah.com/index.php/news-watch/middle-east/16906-the-cia-said-find-an-islamic-billy-graham 12 Michael Oren, Six Days of War (USA: Presidio Press, 2003), p. 9
Works Cited Cornell Library. “Egyptian Delegation to the Paris Peace Conference” Accessed January 18, 2014. https://ia600404.us.archive.org/35/items/cu31924027900921/cu31924027900921.pdf Egypt News. “Egyptian Revolution of 1952”, Accessed January 17, 2014.http://news.egypt.com/en/egyptian- revolution-of-1952.html Goldschmidt, Arthur. A Concise History of the Middle East, Boulder: Westview Press, 2002, p. 249. Habibi, Mariam. History of Europe and the Middle East. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 314-317. Khilafah. Accessed January 15, 2014. http://www.khilafah.com/index.php/news-watch/middle-east/16906-the-cia-said- find-an-islamic-billy-graham Mainger, Colleen, The Things I Do For This Class, Aurora, Self Published, 2014. On War. “Free Officer Coup in Egypt 1952” http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/echo/egypt1952b.htm Oren, Michael. Six Days of War. USA: Presidio Press, 2003 p. 9. Surrendering Islam. “Find a Muslim Billy Graham”. Accessed January 20, 2014. http://www.surrenderingislam.com/essential-reading/1951-1953-egypt-nasser-moslem-billy-graham
Long- & Short-term Causes Half the class will determine the long-term causes, half will determine the short-term causes.