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Soul of the Community September 2009 Knight Communities Overall.

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2 Soul of the Community September 2009 Knight Communities Overall

3 2 Copyright Standards Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. This document contains proprietary research, copyrighted materials, and literary property of Gallup, Inc. It is for the guidance of your company only and is not to be copied, quoted, published, or divulged to others outside of your organization. Gallup ®, Q 12®, The Gallup Path ®, The Gallup Poll ®, CE 11®, SF 34®, Business Impact Analysis ™, SRI ® and Gallup Consulting ® are trademarks of Gallup, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. This document is of great value to both your organization and Gallup, Inc. Accordingly, international and domestic laws and penalties guaranteeing patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret protection protect the ideas, concepts, and recommendations related within this document. No changes may be made to this document without the express written permission of Gallup, Inc.

4 Knight Communities Overall Agenda Community Attachment Overview Overall Measures of Biggest Problem and Life Evaluation The Drivers of Community Attachment Ratings on Domains of Community Attachment Domain Ratings by Comparison Groups Recommendations on Focus Areas and Groups CA by Demographic Groups Appendix (Survey Items, Community Lists, Key Terms) 3 Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. Note: Speaking and discussion points are included in the notes section of many slides

5 Knight Communities Overall 4 Why Community Attachment? The Soul of the Community project is a three-year study by Gallup funded by Knight Foundation that explores what community qualities influence residents’ loyalty and passion for where they live and how those feelings relate to indicators of community well-being such as local economic growth and vitality in 26 U.S. communities. By pinpointing what drives residents’ loyalty and passion for where they live, this study helps local leaders influence residents’ feelings about their community — and potentially its well-being. This project does not serve as a replacement for national economic policy, but it does make the case that residents’ attachment to where they live matters to community vitality. As the country emerges from the economic crisis, this project highlights what draws residents to their communities and that this emotional connection may help local economic growth. Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

6 Knight Communities Overall 5 Methodology U.S. Census geography — Core-Based-Statistical Areas –Larger communities were generally Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) or Metropolitan Districts (MDs); smaller areas were Micropolitan Statistical Areas (µSAs) –Long Beach, CA was defined by ZIP codes as the City of Long Beach Random Digit Dialing (RDD) sample of households in each of the 26 Knight Foundation Communities Telephone interview with about 400 randomly identified adults aged 18+ –Oversample of 1,500 interviews in Detroit, Charlotte, and Akron Interviewing dates February 17 through April 25, 2009 About 400 completed interviews per community Data were weighted in each community to reflect the adult population by age, gender, race, and ethnicity. Communities were put into their correct proportion based on total U.S. adult population. Due to variances in the question scales, most data were rescaled to a 3-point scale for comparability (low, medium, high). A description of the specific items and the rescaled values can be found in the Appendix. Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

7 Knight Communities Overall 6 Community Attachment Attitudinal CA= Loyalty+ Passion Community Attachment (CA) is comprised of two constructs: Attitudinal Loyalty to the community and their Passion for it. Each has equal weight in overall attachment. The CA metric is a mean score ranging from 1.00 to Community Attachment is an individual’s psychological connection with the community. It goes beyond their satisfaction with the community and extends to the passion and pride they take in living there. Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. + = Community Attachment Attitudinal Loyalty Passion

8 Knight Communities Overall CA links to key economic outcomes of communities, such that communities with higher CA also are higher on these outcomes. There are strong positive correlations to GDP and recent measures of high school dropout rates, with weaker correlations to population growth. 7 Attachment Matters to Knight Communities CA Correlation to GDP Growth=.431;CA Correlation to Annual HS Dropout Rate=-.359 CA Correlation to Population Growth=.171 Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. *Event HS dropout rate - percent of students who left high school between the beginning of one school year and the beginning of the next without earning a high school diploma or its equivalent (e.g., a GED).

9 Knight Communities Overall 8 Community Attachment Groups Highly loyal and connected to the community (CA Mean 4.50+) Lack full loyalty and passion but see some positive aspects of community (CA Mean ) Unhappy with the community, its services and offerings, and likely to leave if they can (CA Mean <3.50) CA Mean: Attached Neutral Not Attached Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. Community Attachment is similar to 2008.

10 Knight Communities Overall 9 Community Attachment by Knight Community Huge range in Community Attachment, both within and across Knight Groups — Bradenton is the most attached Knight community; Gary is the least attached. Very Large Pop. — Very High Urban Large Pop. — Very High Urban Medium Pop. — Very High Urban Medium Pop. — High Urban Low/Medium Pop. — Low/Medium Urban CA Mean: Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑↑↑↓↓

11 Knight Communities Overall CA Mean: Community Attachment by Knight Groups There is range in CA across the urbanicity/population groups. The largest urban areas remain least attached but improved since 2008, while the slightly smaller, but highly urban areas (San Jose, St. Paul, etc.) remain the most attached. Very Large Pop. — Very High Urban Large Pop. — Very High Urban Medium Pop. — Very High Urban Medium Pop. — High Urban Low/Medium Pop. — Low/Medium Urban Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. Knight Communities Overall ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑

12 Knight Communities Overall Economy-related concerns (36%) eclipse crime related concerns in Citizen Perception of Most Important Problem Facing Their Community Today Three Responses Allowed 11 Most Important Problem Facing Community Note: Only most frequently mentioned categories shown. May total to more than 100% due to multiple responses. Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 Knight Communities Overall Knight Communities Life Evaluation 12 Citizens in Knight Communities generally have similar perceptions of overall life evaluation as U.S. adults overall during the survey period. The national LEI was about 50% thriving during the same period in Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. *Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index February 17-April 25, 2009

14 Knight Communities Overall Younger, Students, Higher Education, Higher Income, More Thriving 13 Some Groups Thrive More AgeEmployment Gender Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. Education Marital Status Income

15 Knight Communities Overall Vocalize/promote future efforts and goals. Host seminars on area vision. Involve citizens to plan, drive, and share visions. Positive Future Outlook Is Related to Attachment Citizens who feel their community will be a much better place to live in 5 years are much more likely to be attached, as well as for key early- to mid-career segment of adults. % Attached Perception of What Community Will Be Like to Live in 5 Years From Now Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. 14

16 Knight Communities Overall 15 SATISFACTION OUTLOOK RECOMMEND PRIDE PERFECT PLACE Community Attachment Model The goal is increased Community Attachment. The Domains are the levers to move to improve CA. Drive down higher-level Domain constructs to specific outcomes. CADomains (Outcome)(Levers) (Attitudinal Loyalty) (Passion) Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. COMMUNITY OFFERINGS Basic Services  Leadership  Education  Safety  Social Offerings  Aesthetics  Economy SOCIAL CAPITAL CIVIC INVOLVEMENT EMOTIONAL WELLNESS OPENNESS

17 Knight Communities Overall Community Attachment (CA) links to community GDP and high school dropout rates and matters to community prosperity. –Linkages were confirmed and enhanced from –Each community has different strengths that can be promoted and weaknesses that can be addressed. –There is a wide range of sentiments across communities and the CA range is widening. There are specific, tactical actions that can be taken to address CA opportunities. –Attachment is not all about economy and jobs; there are other things that can be done to drive attachment to place. Summary 16 Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

18 Knight Communities Overall  Overall, 24% of citizens are attached to the Knight Community in which they live; 40% are not attached.  Top quartile communities for CA: –Bradenton, FL - MSA –Grand Forks, ND - MSA –State College, PA - MSA –Long Beach, CA - City –Aberdeen, SD - µSA –Boulder, CO - MSA –Lexington, KY - MSA Summary — CA 17  Bottom quartile communities for CA: –Gary, IN - MD –Detroit, MI - MSA –Macon, GA - MSA –Akron, OH - MSA –Wichita, KS - MSA –Philadelphia, PA - MD Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

19 Knight Communities Overall Example Key Focus Areas and Potential Actions 18  New residents — not attached/connected –Make personal connection and ask for their involvement  Employed adults — the more satisfied at work, the more attached to the community –Focus on assisting businesses in driving satisfaction and attachment with current company  Students — currently not attached/connected –Have business and community involve them in meaningful ways while they are there to retain them  Optimism — positive outlook for the future is related to current attachment –Focus leadership and media on messaging/promotion and citizen involvement in the future vision Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

20 Knight Communities Overall Key Attachment Drivers Economy Openness Emotional Wellness Aesthetics Civic Involvement Community Attachment Social Capital Education Safety Leadership Basic Services Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. Drivers remained consistent year-over-year. Social Offerings The correlations of Domains to CA indicate the relative importance of each to overall Community Attachment. The domains are listed in order of strength.

21 Knight Communities Overall Correlations to Overall CA Among College Graduates Years of Age (n=1,181) 20 Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. Key Attachment Drivers Community Attachment Economy Openness Emotional Wellness Aesthetics Civic Involvement Social Capital Education Safety Leadership Basic Services Social Offerings

22 Knight Communities Overall Strengths-Weaknesses Opportunity Map 21 Community Aesthetics and Education are areas of strength for Knight Communities that can be leveraged. Openness, Social Offerings, Basic Services, and Leadership offer the greatest areas for improvement to encourage attachment. Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. Correlation: The association or relationship between variables. A positive correlation means that as one increases, the other increases as well. A 1.0 indicates a perfect correlation. Strength Critical Opportunity Performance (Mean Rating) Importance (Correlation With Attachment)

23 Knight Communities Overall More Than Just Economy 22 Community Avg. HH Inc. Avg. Housing Cost (As # Times Avg. Inc.) Unemployment Rate May ’09 (BLS) CA Score A % B % C % D % E % F % G % Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 Knight Communities Overall More Than Just Economy (continued) 23 Community Avg. HH Inc. Avg. Housing Cost (As # Times Avg. Inc.) Unemployment Rate May ’09 (BLS) CA Score A Gary %2.80 (-.10) B Akron %3.42 (+.02) C Ft. Wayne %3.64 (+.04) D % E % F % G % Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 Knight Communities Overall More Than Just Economy (continued) 24 Community Avg. HH Inc. Avg. Housing Cost (As # Times Avg. Inc.) Unemployment Rate May ’09 (BLS) CA Score A % B % C % D Boulder %3.89 (+.05) E State College %4.00 (+.10) F % G % Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

26 Knight Communities Overall More Than Just Economy (continued) 25 Community Avg. HH Inc. Avg. Housing Cost (As # Times Avg. Inc.) Unemployment Rate May ’09 (BLS) CA Score A % B % C % D % E % F Macon %3.22 (-.27) G Bradenton %4.04 (+.25) Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

27 Knight Communities Overall 26 Community Attachment Community Offerings Sub-Domains Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑ ↓ Citizens’ connectedness to their communities has improved slightly as the economy has worsened, though expectedly, views of the local economy have decreased significantly. Domains and Sub-Domains of CA

28 Knight Communities Overall The structural, physical, and social offerings a community presents — without basic services, citizens can’t thrive. 27 Community Offerings Community Offerings Sub-Domains Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↓ ↓ Views of local community economy declined significantly, leading to a small overall decline in Community Offerings.

29 Knight Communities Overall The physical beauty and availability of parks and green spaces for residents 28 Community Offerings Aesthetics Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑ Perceptions of availability of parks, playgrounds, and trails inched up in 2009.

30 Knight Communities Overall Infrastructure supports such as highways, housing, and healthcare 29 Community Offerings Basic Services Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑ ↑ The national housing crisis has led to higher availability of affordable housing in local communities.

31 Knight Communities Overall The local economic and employment conditions 30 Community Offerings Economy Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Very few citizens feel local economic conditions are strong or that it is a good time to find a job.

32 Knight Communities Overall The quality of K-12 and colleges/universities in the community 31 Community Offerings Education Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence Citizens generally rate the quality of colleges and universities better than K-12 public schools.

33 Knight Communities Overall The leadership and alignment of views of elected officials with citizens 32 Community Offerings Leadership Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence Citizens continue to give low ratings to local community leaders and elected city officials.

34 Knight Communities Overall The local area crime and safety conditions 33 Community Offerings Safety Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence Citizens perceive the safety around their home higher than that of the broader community.

35 Knight Communities Overall The entertainment infrastructure for people to meet each other, and citizen caring 34 Community Offerings Social Offerings Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence Slightly more than one in five citizens feel their community is a great place to make friends and meet people; the community is also viewed as less caring.

36 Knight Communities Overall While citizens perceive Knight Communities to be more welcoming to families with young children, openness to gays/lesbians and young, talented graduates has declined. How welcoming the community is to different types of people 35 Openness Community Good For… Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↓ ↓ ↑

37 Knight Communities Overall Emotional Wellness 36 Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. The mixture of mental and physical well-being items. The metric is an overall measure of personal and community well-being. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↓ Citizens are surprisingly (based on the economic downturn) slightly less stressed on a daily basis than they were a year ago.

38 Knight Communities Overall The people-connections citizens have to each other 37 Social Capital Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑ ↑ Citizens spent more time with neighbors this year and are more connected to family.

39 Knight Communities Overall What residents give to the community in terms of civic involvement 38 Civic Involvement Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. Voting behavior increased due to presidential election in Fall ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑ ↑

40 39 Q:So What Can Community Leaders Do to Drive Community Attachment? A:Focus on Key Sub-Groups Several Examples of Sub-Groups Where Actions Could Be Focused Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

41 Knight Communities Overall Next to Laid-Off Residents, Students Are Least Attached 40 Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. Knight Communities Overall

42 Knight Communities Overall Connect students with businesses while in school through internships, community ties, problem solving, etc. 41 Good schools is a relative strength for most communities, but once they partake of the educational opportunities, many students plan to leave the state. Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. While Educational Opportunities Draw Students — Communities Need to Focus on Keeping Them

43 Knight Communities Overall High Job Satisfaction Plays Role in Community Attachment Work with business to learn how to better engage employees (e.g., host seminar on engaging employees, job swapping by local business, etc.). Overall Satisfaction With Current Job 42 The more satisfied employed adults are with their current company, the more likely they are to be attached to their community. Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

44 Knight Communities Overall 43 Communities Have Opportunity to Build Attachment With Newer Citizens Lifelong residents are significantly less attached than shorter-term residents, particularly in the largest urban communities — may feel they didn’t have outside opportunities. But new residents aren’t yet connected. Build residents’ attachment when they first move to the area. Leaders should contact new residents with a personal invitation to get involved. Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

45 Knight Communities Overall 44 Early- to Mid-Career Citizens Are Least Attached to Their Communities Respondent Age Find opportunities to connect early- to mid-career hires into community through events, sponsorships, and volunteering. Attachment among college-age adults decreased from 2008, likely due to the economy. Those in the prime of their working years — those with the most options for jobs — are the least attached to their communities as well. Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

46 Knight Communities Overall Profile of Most Attached Citizens Citizens Most Likely To Be Attached –65 years of age or older –College graduates –Widowed, married/partnered residents –Retired residents –Homeowners –Mid-tenure residents (6-19 years in community) Citizens Least Likely To Be Attached –18-34 years of age –Single/never married, divorced/separated –Non-retired/non-employed (includes laid off, students, and homemakers) –Rural dwellers –Middle-income residents ($45,000-$74,999 household income) 45 Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

47 Knight Communities Overall Community attachment is highest among older residents 46 CA by Citizen Age Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑

48 Knight Communities Overall Community attachment is slightly higher among college graduates 47 CA by Educational Attainment Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence

49 Knight Communities Overall Widowed residents are generally most attached to the community, while single/never married and divorced/separated are least attached 48 CA by Marital Status Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑

50 Knight Communities Overall Homeowners are more attached than renters 49 CA by Home Ownership Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑

51 Knight Communities Overall Mid-term residents are most attached to their community overall. Newer residents in communities decreased in attachment from CA by Years Lived in Community Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑

52 Knight Communities Overall Retired residents are generally more attached to the community, while non-retired/ non-employed citizens are least attached 51 CA by Employment Status Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑

53 Knight Communities Overall Urban area dwellers within communities increased in attachment, while those living in rural areas remain least attached 52 CA by Community Area Type Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑

54 Knight Communities Overall Higher income residents are generally most attached to the community, although significant increases occurred among lower income residents 53 CA by Total Household Income Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑ ↑

55 Knight Communities Overall Domain Comparisons by Urbanicity Groups 54 Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

56 Knight Communities Overall The structural, physical, and social offerings a community presents — without basic services, citizens can’t thrive. 55 Community Offerings Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence Citizens in different size communities have similar views of their community’s offerings, though perceptions have declined for the smallest and least urban communities. ↓ ↓

57 Knight Communities Overall The physical beauty and availability of parks and green spaces for residents 56 Community Offerings Aesthetics Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. The largest urban communities and the medium population/high urban areas have the lowest perceptions of their community’s aesthetics, though it has increased slightly for the largest urban communities. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑

58 Knight Communities Overall Infrastructure supports such as highways, housing, and healthcare 57 Community Offerings Basic Services Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↑

59 Knight Communities Overall The local economic and employment conditions 58 Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. Perceptions of the local economy decline, echoing national sentiments. Relatively lower decline in largest urban populated areas putting all community types on near-equal perceived economic footing. Community Offerings Economy ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓

60 Knight Communities Overall The quality of K-12 and colleges/universities in the community 59 Community Offerings Education Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence Medium population, very high urban areas (including many southern communities such as Tallahassee, Lexington, and Wichita) have lower perceptions of the quality of their schools.

61 Knight Communities Overall The leadership and alignment of views of elected officials with citizens 60 Community Offerings Leadership Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence ↓

62 Knight Communities Overall The local area crime and safety conditions 61 Community Offerings Safety Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence

63 Knight Communities Overall The entertainment infrastructure for people to meet each other, and citizen caring 62 Community Offerings Social Offerings Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence

64 Knight Communities Overall How welcoming the community is to different types of people 63 Openness Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence

65 Knight Communities Overall The mixture of mental and physical well-being items. The metric is an overall measure of personal and community well-being. 64 Emotional Wellness Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↓

66 Knight Communities Overall The people-connections citizens have to each other 65 Social Capital Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

67 Knight Communities Overall What residents give to the community in terms of civic involvement — Increased in all communities due to national election Fall Civic Involvement Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Civic involvement, driven by voting during the most recent election, increased in all community types. ↑↓Indicate statistical difference from previous year at 95% level of confidence

68 Knight Communities Overall Appendix 67 Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

69 Knight Communities Overall 68 Question/Reporting Scales ConstructQ NumberQuestion WordingOriginal ScaleLowMediumHigh COMMUNITY LOYALTY Q1Overall satisfaction with community 5-point satisfaction1-345 Q2Likely to recommend community to others 5-point likelihood1-345 Q6aOutlook for community 5 years from now 5-point much better to much worse PASSION Q3-BPerfect community for people like me 5-point agreement1-345 Q3-AProud to live in community5-point agreement1-345 Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

70 Knight Communities Overall Question/Reporting Scales (continued) 69 Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. ConstructQ NumberQuestion WordingOriginal ScaleLowMediumHigh COMMUNITY OFFERINGS Basic Services Q7-CHighway and freeway system5-point very good to very bad1-345 Q7-KAvailability of quality healthcare5-point very good to very bad1-345 Q7-DAvailability of affordable housing5-point very good to very bad1-345 Leadership Q15a-BCommunity leaders represent my interests 5-point agreement1-345 Q7-LLeadership of elected city officials5-point very good to very bad1-345 Education Q7-FQuality of public schools (K-12)5-point very good to very bad1-345 Q7-GQuality of colleges and universities5-point very good to very bad1-345 Safety Q19Level of community crime5-point high to low1-345 Q18Safe to walk within 1 mile of home5-point completely safe to not at all safe Aesthetics Q7-AParks, playgrounds, and trails5-point very good to very bad1-345 Q7-BBeauty or physical setting5-point very good to very bad1-345 Economy Q9Economic conditions5-point very good to very bad1-345 Q10Economy getting better/worse3-point better/same/worseworsesamebetter Q7-EAvailability of job opportunities5-point very good to very bad1-345 Q14Company hiring momentum3-point hiring/no change/letting go worsesamebetter Q15Job provides income needed5-point agreement1-345 Q15a-AA good time to find a job in my area5-point agreement1-345 Social Offerings Q7-HVibrant nightlife5-point very good to very bad1-345 Q7-IGood place to meet people and make friends 5-point very good to very bad1-345 Q7-MOther people care about each other5-point very good to very bad1-345

71 Knight Communities Overall 70 Question/Reporting Scales (continued) ConstructQ NumberQuestion WordingOriginal ScaleLowMediumHigh COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT Q22-AVolunteer2-point yes/nonoyes Q22-CVoted in local election2-point yes/nonoyes Q22-BAttend local community meetings2-point yes/nonoyes Q22-DWork with residents to make change 2-point yes/nonoyes OPENNESS Q8-FGood place for senior citizens5-point very good to very bad1-345 Q8-CGood place for racial and ethnic minorities 5-point very good to very bad1-345 Q8-DGood place for families with kids5-point very good to very bad1-345 Q8-EGood place for gays/lesbians5-point very good to very bad1-345 Q8-AGood place for talented college graduates 5-point very good to very bad1-345 Q8-BGood place for immigrants from other countries 5-point very good to very bad1-345 SOCIAL CAPITAL Q23Belong to formal/informal groups/clubs 8-point 0 to 7+ groups Q26Spend time with neighbors7-point never to about every day Once year or less Several times wk/daily Q24Close friends in the community6-point none to all Q25Family in area6-point none to all Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

72 Knight Communities Overall 71 Question/Reporting Scales (continued) ConstructQ NumberQuestion WordingOriginal ScaleLowMediumHigh EMOTIONAL WELLNESS Q16-AIn my community I am treated with respect 5-point strongly agree to strongly disagree Q16-BI felt well-rested yesterday5-point strongly agree to strongly disagree Q16-CI felt a high level of stress yesterday 5-point strongly agree to strongly disagree Q16-DI learned or did something interesting yesterday 5-point strongly agree to strongly disagree Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

73 Knight Communities Overall 72 Knight Foundation Communities *Oversampled communities Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. Aberdeen, SD – µSA Akron, OH* – MSA Biloxi, MS – MSA Boulder, CO – MSA Bradenton, FL – MSA Charlotte, NC* – MSA Columbia, SC – MSA Columbus, GA – MSA Detroit, MI* – MSA Duluth, MN – MSA Fort Wayne, IN – MSA Gary, IN – MD Grand Forks, ND – MSA Lexington, KY – MSA City of Long Beach, CA Macon, GA – MSA Miami, FL – MD Milledgeville, GA – µSA Myrtle Beach, SC – MSA Palm Beach, FL – MD Philadelphia, PA – MD San Jose, CA – MSA St. Paul, MN – MSA State College, PA – MSA Tallahassee, FL – MSA Wichita, KS – MSA

74 Knight Communities Overall Knight Foundation Communities 73 Bradenton, FL - MSA Fort Wayne, IN - MSA Aberdeen, SD - µSA Biloxi, MS - MSA Duluth, MN - MSA St. Paul, MN - MSA Macon, GA - MSA Milledgeville, GA - µSA Myrtle Beach, SC - MSA Columbia, SC - MSA State College, PA - MSA Philadelphia, PA - MD Lexington, KY - MSA Wichita, KS - MSA Miami, FL - MD Palm Beach, FL - MD Charlotte, NC - MSA San Jose, CA - MSA Detroit, MI - MSA Gary, IN - MD City of Long Beach, CA Akron, OH - MSA Boulder, CO - MSA Very High Urban – Very Large Population Very High Urban – Large Population Very High Urban – Medium Population High Urban – Medium Population Medium/Low Urban – Medium/Low Population LEGEND Tallahassee, FL - MSA Columbus, GA - MSA Grand Forks, ND - MSA Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

75 Knight Communities Overall 74 Knight Community Comparison Groups 5 comparison groups were created among the 26 Knight Foundation communities based on their urbanicity (as defined by the U.S. Census) and relative adult population size. Goal of creating groups is for comparisons of cities within groups (rather than across group comparisons). Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Very Large Population — Very High Urban Detroit, MI – MSA; Philadelphia, PA – MD; Miami, FL – MD 2 Large Population — Very High Urban St. Paul, MN – MSA; San Jose, CA – MSA; Palm Beach, FL – MD; Charlotte, NC – MSA 3 Medium Population — Very High Urban Bradenton, FL – MSA; Akron, OH – MSA; Gary, IN – MD; City of Long Beach; Boulder, CO – MSA 4 Medium Population — High Urban Columbia, SC – MSA; Wichita, KS – MSA; Lexington, KY – MSA; Tallahassee, FL – MSA; Columbus, GA – MSA 5 Medium/Low Population — Medium/Low Urban Fort Wayne, IN – MSA; Duluth, MN – MSA; Macon, GA – MSA; Biloxi, MS – MSA; Grand Forks, ND – MSA; Myrtle Beach, SC – MSA; State College, PA – MSA; Milledgeville, GA – µSA; Aberdeen, SD – µSA

76 Knight Communities Overall 75 Key Terms Community Attachment (CA) – Residents’ psychological connection with the community, specifically defined as their loyalty and passion for the place. Attitudinal Loyalty – The overall contentment of citizens with their community, their outlook for the community’s future, and likelihood to recommend the community to others. Passion – The pride and enthusiasm citizens have toward their community, and their place in it. Domains – Perception of community qualities that drive overall CA and can be impacted locally. Social Capital – the people-connections citizens have to each other. Openness – how welcoming the community is to different types of people. Civic Involvement – what residents give to the community in terms of civic involvement. Emotional Wellness – the mixture of mental and physical well-being items. The metric is an overall measure of personal and community well-being. Basic Services – infrastructure supports such as highways, housing, and healthcare. Economy – local economic and employment conditions. Safety – local area crime and safety conditions. Leadership – rating of leadership and belief that elected officials represent resident’s interest. Education – quality of K-12 and colleges/universities in the community. Aesthetics – physical beauty and availability of parks and green spaces for residents. Social Offerings – entertainment infrastructure for people to meet each other, and citizen caring. Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

77 Knight Communities Overall 76 Attitudinal Loyalty Attitudinal Loyalty measures the overall contentment of citizens with their community, their outlook for the community’s future, and likelihood to recommend the community to others. Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

78 Knight Communities Overall 77 Passion Passion describes the pride and enthusiasm citizens have toward their community, and their place in it. Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved.

79 Knight Communities Overall 78 Community Domains Gallup identified five key Domains and seven Sub-Domains related to Community Attachment. These domains identify aspects of the community which drive attachment and can be impacted through local- level initiatives by community leaders and businesses. Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. COMMUNITY OFFERINGS Basic Services  Leadership  Education  Safety  Social Offerings  Aesthetics  Economy SOCIAL CAPITAL CIVIC INVOLVEMENT EMOTIONAL WELLNESS OPENNESS Community Offerings — the basic factors without which citizens cannot thrive. Emotional Wellness — the personal well-being of individuals. Social Capital — the people-connections citizens have to each other. Openness — how welcoming the community is to different types of people. Civic Involvement — what the residents give to the community in terms of civic involvement.

80 Knight Communities Overall Correlations to Overall CA Among Students; Openness is key for students (n=283) 79 Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. Key Attachment Drivers Community Attachment Economy Openness Emotional Wellness Aesthetics Social Capital Civic Involvement Leadership Safety Education Basic Services Social Offerings

81 Knight Communities Overall Correlations to Attached Citizens — Residents Aged Social Offerings and Openness most influence those aged (n=3,077) 80 Copyright © 2009 Gallup, Inc. All rights reserved. Key Attachment Drivers Community Attachment Economy Openness Emotional Wellness Aesthetics Social Capital Civic Involvement Leadership Safety Education Basic Services Social Offerings


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