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Characteristics of Headwater Streams and Considerations for Stream Restoration on Hollow Fills in Eastern Kentucky The Stream Institute University of Louisville.

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Presentation on theme: "Characteristics of Headwater Streams and Considerations for Stream Restoration on Hollow Fills in Eastern Kentucky The Stream Institute University of Louisville."— Presentation transcript:

1 Characteristics of Headwater Streams and Considerations for Stream Restoration on Hollow Fills in Eastern Kentucky The Stream Institute University of Louisville Art Parola Civil & Environmental Engineering

2 STREAM INSTITUTE Sponsors and Acknowledgement EPA 319 and Kentucky Division of Water EPA 319 and Kentucky Division of Water Regional Stream Assessment of Headwater Streams Regional Stream Assessment of Headwater Streams Margi Jones – 319 Project Manager Margi Jones – 319 Project Manager EPA 401 Wetlands Grant and Kentucky Division of Water EPA 401 Wetlands Grant and Kentucky Division of Water Evaluation of Stream Restorations Evaluation of Stream Restorations John Dovak and Jennifer Garland, supervisors, Water Quality Certification Section, Kentucky Division of Water John Dovak and Jennifer Garland, supervisors, Water Quality Certification Section, Kentucky Division of Water Assistance also provided by Kentucky Department for Natural Resources Assistance also provided by Kentucky Department for Natural Resources Jennifer Thompson and Mark Carew Jennifer Thompson and Mark Carew

3 STREAM INSTITUTE Acknowledgement ULSI Staff Jeffery Jack, Ph.D. – Associate Professor, Biology Department, University of Louisville Jeffery Jack, Ph.D. – Associate Professor, Biology Department, University of Louisville Michael Croasdaile, Ph.D. - Research Associate Michael Croasdaile, Ph.D. - Research Associate William S. Vesely, Research Project Engineer William S. Vesely, Research Project Engineer Ben Mater – Graduate Student Ben Mater – Graduate Student Chandra Hansen – Technical Research Writer Chandra Hansen – Technical Research Writer Dana S K Jackman, M.S. - Program Coordinator Dana S K Jackman, M.S. - Program Coordinator

4 STREAM INSTITUTE Headwater Streams and Hollow-Fill Study Sites Greenbo Lake SRP Yatesville WMA Paintsville WMA Robinson Forest WMA Lilley Cornett Woods Pike County Mudlick Br. of Pond Cr. Narrows Br. of Pond Cr. Murphy Frk. of Narrows Br. Mudlick Br. of Blackberry Frk. UT of Narrows Br. Letcher County Elkhorn Cr headwaters Little Elkhorn Cr Harlan County Arches Br. of Big Laurel Cr. Nick Br. of Big Laurel Cr. Owsley County Rone Frk. Br. UT of Spivey Cr. Fishtrap Lake WMA Martin County Laurel Frk. of Wolf Br. Harlan County Sally Huff Br. of Cloverlick Cr. Bee Br. of Cloverlick Cr. Trace Frk. of Cloverlick Cr. Right Frk. of Cloverlick Cr.

5 STREAM INSTITUTE Some Characteristics of Headwater Streams in Eastern Kentucky Headwater Valley and Stream Morphology Headwater Valley and Stream Morphology Extent of channel network Extent of channel network Channel head locations Channel head locations Bed forms (boulder swales, step pools, plane bed, etc.) Bed forms (boulder swales, step pools, plane bed, etc.) Channel and valley evolution – landslide driven landscape Channel and valley evolution – landslide driven landscape Headwater Valley Hydrology Headwater Valley Hydrology Intermittent-ephemeral transition zones Intermittent-ephemeral transition zones Valley groundwater system Valley groundwater system Structural features and land-use Structural features and land-use

6 STREAM INSTITUTE Headcut and Extent of Network

7 STREAM INSTITUTE Valley Morphology

8 STREAM INSTITUTE Valley bottom filled with debris: boulder swale

9 STREAM INSTITUTE Flow may rearrange colluvial material into bedforms (step-pools)

10 STREAM INSTITUTE Abrupt channel head (Lilley Cornett Woods)

11 STREAM INSTITUTE Gradual transition (Falling Rock Creek)

12 STREAM INSTITUTE Abrupt channel head at road (Mill Branch)

13 STREAM INSTITUTE Landslide potential map Outerbridge 1982 Debris flow Susceptible to landslides Numerous old landslides

14 STREAM INSTITUTE Landslides Channel has incised into hillslope at contact with landslide scar

15 STREAM INSTITUTE Valley morphology and groundwater interaction Coal seams

16 STREAM INSTITUTE Clemens Branch: sq miles (66 acres)

17 STREAM INSTITUTE Clemens Branch: 0.05 sq miles (32 acres)

18 STREAM INSTITUTE Clemens Branch: sq miles (24 acres)

19 STREAM INSTITUTE Clemens Branch: sq miles (11.5 acres)

20 STREAM INSTITUTE Clemens Branch: sq miles (2.6 acres)

21 STREAM INSTITUTE HF 5 HF 10 HF 11 Sediment Pond

22 STREAM INSTITUTE Multiple fill types Valley fills Valley fills Hollow fills and head-of-hollow fills Hollow fills and head-of-hollow fills Side hill fills Side hill fills Bench fills Bench fills Characterized by elevation in the hollow elevation in the hollow location location geometric configuration geometric configuration durability of rock durability of rock

23 STREAM INSTITUTE Considerations for Stream Restoration at Hollow Fills

24 STREAM INSTITUTE

25 Side drains (Groin ditches) Terraces Underdrains

26 STREAM INSTITUTE

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28 HF 5 HF 10 HF 11 Sediment Pond

29 STREAM INSTITUTE Mud Lick Headcuts may migrate around check dams

30 STREAM INSTITUTE Headcuts may migrate into fill channels

31 STREAM INSTITUTE Streams may avulse to a new location

32 STREAM INSTITUTE Landslides are part of the landscape and should be considered in channel design

33 STREAM INSTITUTE Stream restoration at sediment pond

34 STREAM INSTITUTE Mud Lick

35 STREAM INSTITUTE Channel degradation along restored stream in pond area

36 STREAM INSTITUTE Some Considerations for Design of Stream Restoration at Hollow Fills Final constructed geometry of fill may change substantially from the initial permitted design Final constructed geometry of fill may change substantially from the initial permitted design Fill is composed of porous material, affecting groundwater and surface water interaction and the location of the ephemeral/intermittent transition zone Fill is composed of porous material, affecting groundwater and surface water interaction and the location of the ephemeral/intermittent transition zone Adjacent hillslope processes such as landslides will continue resulting in slope failure debris in channels and potential displacement of channels Adjacent hillslope processes such as landslides will continue resulting in slope failure debris in channels and potential displacement of channels Differential settlement of fill would cause somewhat unpredictable changes in channel slope in locations other than along fill sides Differential settlement of fill would cause somewhat unpredictable changes in channel slope in locations other than along fill sides Downstream channel instability may propagate into fill channels or restored pond reaches Downstream channel instability may propagate into fill channels or restored pond reaches

37 STREAM INSTITUTE Kentucky DNR Better pond restoration plans and improved channel design on fills Directive 34: 01/17/01 Inspection Procedures for MSHA Impoundments Directive 34: 01/17/01 Inspection Procedures for MSHA Impoundments Directive 36: 08/07/02 Excess spoil fill, contemporaneous reclamation, backfilling & grading: Inspection/Enforcement procedures Directive 36: 08/07/02 Excess spoil fill, contemporaneous reclamation, backfilling & grading: Inspection/Enforcement procedures Reclamation Advisory Memorandums RAM /15/05 KPDES Permits for Coal Mining Activities: New Antidegradation Requirements RAM /15/05 KPDES Permits for Coal Mining Activities: New Antidegradation Requirements RAM 138 RAM 138 RAM /14/04 New Regulations for Noncoal Minerals RAM /14/04 New Regulations for Noncoal Minerals RAM 137 RAM 137 RAM /21/03 KPDES Coal General Permit Reissued RAM /21/03 KPDES Coal General Permit Reissued RAM 136 RAM 136 RAM /10/02 Review of Durable Rock Fill Designs RAM /10/02 Review of Durable Rock Fill Designs RAM 135 RAM 135 RAM /25/01 Clarification of Permitting Procedures for Streams Between Fills and Ponds RAM /25/01 Clarification of Permitting Procedures for Streams Between Fills and Ponds RAM 134 RAM 134

38 STREAM INSTITUTE Questions?


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