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CuPIDO: Cumulus Photogrammetric, In Situ, and radar Doppler Observations CuPIDO Preparation meeting. Boulder, CO. April 12, 2006 Rick Damiani, Bart Geerts,

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Presentation on theme: "CuPIDO: Cumulus Photogrammetric, In Situ, and radar Doppler Observations CuPIDO Preparation meeting. Boulder, CO. April 12, 2006 Rick Damiani, Bart Geerts,"— Presentation transcript:

1 CuPIDO: Cumulus Photogrammetric, In Situ, and radar Doppler Observations CuPIDO Preparation meeting. Boulder, CO. April 12, 2006 Rick Damiani, Bart Geerts, and Larry Oolman, UWyo Joe Zehnder, ASU WCR Group The UWKA/WCR Role

2 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Contents UWKA/WCR Objectives Resources Expected data analysis Strategy and Logistics

3 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Objective I.  Cu radar echo and kinematic structure  Cloud microphysical & thermodynamic structure  Entrainment patterns  Cloud evolution synergy: photogrammetry + sounding systems  Environmental changes during Cu convection  Cu deepening and orographic mesoscale circulations synergy: photogrammetry+sounding systems+PAM-III network Objective II.

4 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Conceptual Model of Cu Growth Dynamics (objective I.) Pulsating Clouds? Thermals or plumes? Time/spatial scale Rate of rise (Scorer, 1957) BubblePlume (Schmidt, 1941) (Blyth, 1988)

5 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Conceptual Model of Cu Growth Dynamics (objective I.) Vortex-RingsMajor vorticity structures. Vortex-Rings Role on entrainment Role of shear? Cloud base thermodynamics Undiluted parcels? In-cloud and environmental thermodynamics Orographic locking and effects

6 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO How do we Reach the goals? UWKA platform + in situ probes: –Standard Meteo variables –Cloud Particle Spectrometers (FSSP,1DC,2DC) –LICOR (H 2 O, CO 2 ) –Radiation Sensors (visible, IR) –Forward looking camera WCR Flight Strategies

7 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO WCR specs. Frequency 94.92GHz GHz ( =3.16 mm) Nominal Peak Power1.6 kW (1% duty cycle) Nominal Pulse Length100, 250, 500 ns Pulse Repetit. Frequency (PRF)1-20 kHz Receivers -dynamic range -bandwidth 2 >70 dB 10, 5, 2 MHz Antennas - aperture - beamwidth - gain - polarization (linear) 4 4; 5 fixed beam positions 0.30, 0.30, 0.38, 0.46 m , 0.8, 0.6, 0.5º 45, 46, 48, 50 dB one dual (H,V), three single Doppler Velocity - pulse-pair processor - FFT spectrum ± kHz PRF 32 or 64 spectral lines Volume Resolution (250ns, 0.3m antenna) 37(range) x 12 x 15 m 37(range) x 12 x 15 1km 37(range) x 36 x 39 m 37(range) x 36 x 39 3km Minimum Detectable Signal (250 ns, 500 averaged pulses, 0.3 m km) -30 dBZ (1 std. dev. above mean noise)

8 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO WCR cloud scanning modes Vertical Plane Dual-Doppler Horizontal Beam Dual-Doppler Up/Down profiling mode

9 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO WCR: Profiling Configurations Single-Doppler modes: Side/down mode is achieved using beam 1 from both HBDD and VPDD configurations Profiling Mode (Up/Down) is achieved by redirecting the HBDD beam 1 upward via mirror plate

10 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Scattering volume Airborne Dual-Doppler: Basic Concept Time lag:  t= sTime lag:  t= s Lifetime of physical features assumed greater than  tLifetime of physical features assumed greater than  t Plane of the beams determines the resolvable components of the velocity (Damiani and Haimov, 2006, IEEE TGARS, in review)

11 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Data Analysis Process WCR data Combine in situ and remote sensing Integrate with ISSF data and profilers/soundings

12 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Up/Down Profile Mode Cloud base thermodynamics (initial stages of cloud formation) Thermal base convergence and entrainment Density temperature (T  ) and liquid water content (lwc100) gust-probe vertical velocity & 1-s gust vectors WCR retrieved vertical velocity & reflectivity , 19:45UTC

13 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Flight level Up/Down Profile Mode Ice (iwcc) and liquid water content (lwc100) gust-probe vertical velocity & 1-s gust vectors WCR retrieved vertical velocity & reflectivity Convergence and LWC drop indicate ambient air entrainment driven by the circulation , 20:58UTC

14 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, COVPDD recyclingHydrometeor recycling at the base of the thermal Small-scale (nodes) at cloud-top , 18:20UTC (Damiani et al., 2005, JAS)

15 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO dBZVPDD Two counter-rotating vortices are visible in the ascending cloud-top , 18:23UTC 8m/s (Damiani et al., 2005, JAS)

16 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Conceptual Model of Cu Growth Dynamics Potential Entrainment Sites: primary and secondary circulations drive intrusions of ‘dry’ air Potential Entrainment Sites: primary and secondary circulations drive intrusions of ‘dry’ air

17 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, COVPDD Ambient air intrusion at the base of the thermal Hydrometeor recycling , 20:43UTC

18 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Conceptual Model of Cu Growth Dynamics asymmetric vorticity structures in stronger winds (and shear): tilted vortex rings

19 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, COVPDD Ambient shear effects Tilted vortex rings? , 21:42UTC

20 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, COVPDD Ambient shear effects , 21:42UTC

21 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Conceptual Model of Cu Growth Dynamics horizontal cross-sections

22 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, COHBDD Vertical vorticity and entrainment patterns Divergence (thermal top?) , 20:50UTC

23 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Conclusions Flight planning strategy will be based on:Flight planning strategy will be based on: Sought kinematic patterns, vortical structures Sought kinematic patterns, vortical structures Entrainment mechanisms (intrusions) Entrainment mechanisms (intrusions) Soundings’ availability Soundings’ availability Thermodynamics and microphysics at different altitudes Thermodynamics and microphysics at different altitudes Multi-scanning capabilities of the WCR Multi-scanning capabilities of the WCR Lagrangian investigation of rising turrets (evolution) Lagrangian investigation of rising turrets (evolution) Horizontal plane kinematics and entrainment Horizontal plane kinematics and entrainment Cloud evolution Cloud evolution

24 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Flight Plan Forecast: convection onset time Forecast: LCL, LFC, NBL, Cloud-top Wind direction/ Shear Direction/ Vertical Profile in the layer of observations Take-off before cu-convection (7am-1pm LT) 1.Circle (20 min~30-40km  ): GPS-routed loop 2.Cloud base transects: UD, SD, SS 3.Climb and Scan mid levels: UD, SS, DD (possibly DPDD) 4.Over the top: DD, SS 5.Post-Cu investigation 60 Flight hrs: 15 IOPs

25 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO CBL Air-stream Assessment Sub-Cloud Layer Characterization Synergy: Ground Stations + Soundings   ~20-40km~ 20 min  FL: 1000’ AGL, LCL, detrainment level ~18kft MSL   t~10 min  FL: LCL-1000’ Pusch Ridge Wilderness (also objective II.)

26 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO cumuli modifying the environment difference between upstream and downstream environment also: fixed-level Cu mapping and HBDD (objective II.)

27 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Cu penetration patterns: summary

28 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Pre-Cu-Convection Assessment Document: CBL air-stream channeled by the complex terrain, feeding the cloud development. If the WCR signal is marginal in the clear CBL, the in situ thermodynamic and kinematic information will be important in describing first cumulus development. Synergy: PAM stations/ Tower/ GAOS-Soundings

29 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Cu Initial Phases: Cloud Base Investigation Transects at cloud base: LCL+1000’ 1000’ climb 300’ A View A climb UD SD SS UD SD shear/ mean wind Tot time:~ 6-10min depending on development (if turret grows  climb to next phase)

30 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Cu Initial Phases: Cloud Base Investigation Document: changes in echo, vertical velocity structure, as well as in buoyancy, water loading, and entrainment characteristics. The UWKA will also document changes in the environment as the cumulus detrains and eventually collapses, leaving behind a mixture of CBL and ambient air. Synergy: cameras/LCL- forecast/GAOS-Sounding

31 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Cu Mid-Stages: Kinematics & Entrainment SS DD Tot time:~ 10-20min depending on development (if turret grows  climb to next phase) Alternate passes: SS/DD,DPDD Along or Across-wind direction wind/shear DD/DPDD

32 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Cu Mid-Stages: Kinematics and Microphysics Document: –towers’ growth –entrainment at mid levels; –pulsating nature; –structure of thermals; –vertical vorticity; Synergy: cameras/wind profilers –Adiabatic cores? –Droplet spectrum evolution –Recirculation of drizzle or ice particles –Secondary ice multiplication processes

33 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Environmental Changes at mid-stages When: strong prevailing wind and multiple cloud (cluster) Tot time:~ 20-30min each Closed patterns at fixed MSL altitude, long (~40km) legs directed along the wind wind/shear

34 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Cu Advanced Stages: Cloud Top SS DD Alternate passes: DD,DPDD/SS Along or Across-wind direction Let the top outclimb the AC  SS wind/shear DD/DPDD

35 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Cu Advanced-Stages: cloud-top mechanics Document: –Vorticity structures and entrainment near cloud outer boundaries Synergy: cameras/wind profilers The UWKA/WCR will sample Cu evolution at various levels in the cloud, until over-development starts

36 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Cu Post-Stages UWKA will investigate detrainment stages by circling around the mountain range and possibly descending to low levels to repeat circumnavigation, in order to sample both the convective outflow and the generation of new inflow. This pattern will also keep the UWKA at distance from electric activity which is focused over the mountain peaks. The sequence then can be repeated, with cloud transects as soon as the new inflow engenders cumulus development. Synergy: cameras/PAMs/Forecast

37 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO flight operations operations base: Tucson Int’l 60 research flt hours, ~15 IOPs normal time window: 7 am – 1 pm MST (UTC-7) tentative take-off time decided after the 3 pm daily weather briefing update on T/O decision after 6 am weather update (using the 5 am (12 Z) Tucson sounding)

38 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO

39 April, 2006CuPIDO meeting, Boulder, CO Organized large scale horizontal dynamics Jul 12 th, 2003


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