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Geologic Hazards on Oahu and Elsewhere in Hawaii: A Partial History of Recurring Events, Costs, and Responses* Earthquakes Landslides Debris Flows and.

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Presentation on theme: "Geologic Hazards on Oahu and Elsewhere in Hawaii: A Partial History of Recurring Events, Costs, and Responses* Earthquakes Landslides Debris Flows and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geologic Hazards on Oahu and Elsewhere in Hawaii: A Partial History of Recurring Events, Costs, and Responses* Earthquakes Landslides Debris Flows and Floods Rock Fall * Does not include volcanic hazards, tsunamis, or reach erosion

2 Earthquakes

3 Hawaii Earthquake Damage 10/15/2006 http://cbs5. com/slideshows/Hawaii

4 Hawaii's earthquake losses… http://www. insurancejournal
… 1,173 homes on the Big Island were damaged, including 29 that now are considered uninhabitable. … preliminary damage estimates from the earthquake reached $73 million… … county officials are placing damage estimates closer to $100 million… The initial damage tally … $43.5 million for schools, $7 million at Kawaihae harbor, $11.6 million to businesses, $8.3 million for roads and bridges and $2 million for water systems

5 Landslides

6 Selected Landslides on Oahu
Moanalua Valley Manoa Valley Palolo Valley (active) Aina Haina

7 1989 Damage, Alani-Paty Translational Landslide (photograph from Rex Baum)

8 Alani-Paty Landslide http://web. umr
The landslides encompassed approximately 140 homes in a 10 acre area and caused substantial damage and economic loss to over thirty homes.

9 Alani-Paty Landslide landslides. usgs. gov/docs/faq/significantls_508
Alani-Paty Landslide landslides.usgs.gov/docs/faq/significantls_508.pdf Costs, $34 million (2000 dollars) The very slow-moving Alani-Paty landslide near the City of Honolulu, Hawaii, damaged houses, streets, and utilities on 60 lots of a residential neighborhood built on a debris apron. The slide is similar to several others near Honolulu that have caused millions of dollars in property damage. The slide area showed signs of movement in the mid or late 1970s and residents have reported damage to houses and streets during and immediately following rain periods, especially during the winters of 1987 and 1988.

10 Landslide hits Windward area cited for its high risk 5/20/2003
State engineer George Abcede looked over the section where some 40 cubic yards of earth came off the hillside on the northwest side of Castle Junction. The landslide occurred at 6:45 p.m. yesterday and closed one lane for about three hours.

11 Heavy Rains Add to Misery for Drivers Caught in Pali Landslide 11/1/2006

12 Lava delta lost 23 acres in latest collapse 5/10/07 http://the
*Visitor killed in a nearby lava delta collapse on 4/19/93

13 Debris Flows and Floods

14 Debris Flows and Floods (East Oahu) 12/31/87 http://books. nap
$34,000,000 damage 200-year storm More than 1250 homes damaged “A reassessment of some of the flood zone designations should be conducted… to determine whether current hazard designations are appropriate. In addition, flood hazard mapping efforts should be extended to those areas where flood risks are currently unevaluated.” National Research Council

15 Mud, rocks and water slam Makaha condo 11/14/96 http://starbulletin

16 Cars lifted into trees along Manoa stream at Woodlawn Drive.
UH salvages what's left after Halloween Eve flood 10/30/04 $87M-$100M damage at UH Manoa ~50-year storm Damage to Hamilton library still not completely repaired Cars lifted into trees along Manoa stream at Woodlawn Drive. A computer monitor from the Hamilton Library lies on the grass on the University of Hawaii's Manoa campus.

17 Rain causes another mudslide on Round Top 3/22/06 http://the
"This is pretty much a repeat performance of what happened on Round Top the day before," city spokesman Bill Brennan said of the second landslide in the area in as many days. "Same place. Same dirt." Only more of it, said Larry Leopardi, the city's chief of road maintenance. Leopardi said the mud and debris that spilled across Round Top Drive on Wednesday filled about 23 dump trucks. Yesterday's daytime haul filled 28 dump trucks. "We probably had about 300 cubic yards on Wednesday," said Leopardi. Yesterday, it was around 380 cubic yards.

18 Heavy showers bring floods and 2 more mudslides 3/24/06 Landslides were reported in Manoa and on Round Top Drive The mudslide is the fourth in as many days in the area. Officials said it was about four times bigger than the previous slides. Michael Hofmann and Linda Green's home on Puuhonua Street in Manoa was flooded by mud due to the recent heavy rains. Workers helped shovel the mud into buckets and formed a human chain to carry it all out.

19 Maunalaha residents flee as mud covers road 3/31/06 About 30 Maunalaha Road residents evacuated their homes yesterday after heavy rain brought an avalanche of mud down a 200-foot slope into their properties. The landslide created a crevice 20 feet wide from Round Top Drive down into Maunalaha Valley where residents have watched smaller slides carry taro, banana and other plants down the hill in the past two weeks.

20 Digging out. 4/3/06 http://starbulletin. com/2006/04/04/news/story01
A landslide on Round Top Drive blanketed the roadway yesterday and buried traffic barriers. Army National Guard and Air National Guard soldiers were at the scene yesterday of the recent landslides on Round Top Drive, shoveling dirt into bags for use as barriers against further erosion if rain returns.

21 Round Top to get fast attention. 4/20/06 http://starbulletin
On March 24, thundershowers caused a huge mudslide on Round Top Drive, forcing the closure of the roadway, the fourth in as many days. A week later, on March 31, a severe landslide brought down mud and black sand that covered the roadway more than 3 feet deep. State Sen. Carol Fukunaga said it is "scary for legislators" because the costs might total $20 million just for the Round Top/Maunalaha Valley area, when the state is looking at many other flood-devastated areas. * The road is still closed as of 12/2/07

22 Round Top Drive: Mudslide Blocked Access 12/4/07 http://kgmb9
Overnight, rain ran down from Round Top Drive above. The saturated hillside washed down and covered the road with about three feet of mud.

23 Rockfalls

24 Rockfall sites on Oahu http://starbulletin. com/2003/05/16/news/index1
1. Kalanianaole Highway at Makapuu 2. Kamehameha Highway near Waimea Bay 3. Kamehameha Highway near Kahuku 4. Pali Highway, Kailua bound, side of roadway past Castle Junction 5. Pali Highway, Kaneohe side of roadway at Castle Juntion 6. Kamehameha Highway near Kipapa Gulch Bridge 7. Kamehameha Highway near Wahiawa 8. Pali Highway just before Kailua Town 9. Farrington Highway before Yokohama Bay 10. Kamehameha Highway near Wahiawa

25 Partial List of Oahu Rockfalls (12) 1954-1962 http://starbulletin
March 1954: A 6-ton boulder crashes into a bedroom on Waolani Avenue in Puunui. November 1954: A 2-ton boulder crashes through the roof of a Palolo Valley home. November 1955: A large rock crushes the leg of an 11-year-old boy. November 1956: A 1,000-pound boulder loosened by torrential rains smashes into a Niu Valley home, stopping short of a bed on which a woman is sitting. April 1958: A Palolo Valley home is hit by a 1-ton boulder. July 1958: A boulder crashes into an Aina Haina yard, narrowly missing a mother and her three children. August 1958: A 2-ton boulder crashes into a Kalihi bedroom, missing two children. June 1960: A rock damages a Lanikai garage and misses children's bedroom. October 1960: Two 1-ton boulders crashes into a Kalihi Valley home. February 1961: A 2-ton rock strikes an Aina Haina home. March 1961: A boulder crushes a car outside Palolo Valley Home. January 1962: A 2-ton boulder crashes through the roof of a Manoa Valley home.

26 Partial List of Oahu Rockfalls (12) 1962-2000 http://starbulletin
August 1962: Eight-year-old Lei Ushijima is killed by a boulder at her Aina Haina home. September 1962: A 6-ton boulder crashes through the wall of an Aina Haina home September 1965: A 2-ton boulder crushes Henry and Konimi Cho in their Manoa living room. (See related story.) April 1970: A Waianae woman is injured when a boulder rolls down a hillside and strikes her car in Moanalua Valley. February 1974: A falling boulder on the beach in Kihei, Maui, kills a Canadian visitor. September 1992: A boulder tumbles down the north side of Manoa Valley and smashes into a Huelani Drive house struck by a boulder in 1977. October 1992: A girl is injured when a boulder crashes through her family's Niu Valley home. February 1993: A boulder falls on a female hiker on a ridge above Pali Highway. March 1993: A 2 1/2-foot-tall boulder falls off a sheer cliff face and crashes into a back corner of a Palolo Valley home. April 1993: A 10-ton boulder rolls down a Manoa hillside and smashes into a house. May 1999: Eight people are killed in the Mother's Day rockslide at Sacred Falls Park. March 2000: A rockslide near Waimea Bay temporarily closes a stretch of Kamehameha Highway.

27 Six dead after Sacred Falls landslide A roar like thunder, then screams of agony 5/9/1999 At least 6 are dead and 33 are hurt; more could be buried by boulders

28 Sacred Falls death toll rises to eight http://starbulletin

29 Recurring Rock Falls at Sacred Falls http://starbulletin
May 1999: 8 killed and ~32 injured during Mother’s Day rock avalanche May 1, 1993, a 22-year-old airman from Hickam Air Force Base was injured when a rock hit him on the head about 150 feet from the falls. Oct. 28, 1991, a man and two women were injured when rocks fell on their head and back. Police said rocks fell because they became loose after heavy rains. January 1982, a girl, 4, was killed when she was hit on the head by a falling rock at the pool. May 24, 1970, 30 hikers were trapped under an avalanche. A survivor told the Star-Bulletin "the air was filled with rocks." One man was seriously injured and two women suffered minor injuries. Since Sacred Falls has been a state park, the number of injuries reported has averaged close to 1/month

30 Assessment of Landslide Hazards in Kaluanui and Maakua Gulches, Oahu, Hawaii Following the 9 May 1999 Sacred Falls Landslide Summary and Conclusions USGS Open-File Report The Sacred Falls landslide occurred as a result of long-term, gradual degradation of the slope rather than by being triggered by external factors. The ongoing level of landslide hazard does not appear to have been significantly increased by the Sacred Falls landslide. The continuing (long-term) level of landslide hazard in the Kaluanui and Maakua Gulches is very high because of the steep, high canyon walls; narrow valley floors; and ongoing slope weathering and rock fall. Traditional methods to mitigate rock-fall hazards are not viable in these steep, narrow canyon environments. Detailed assessment of rock-fall hazards is possible using a combination of ground, aerial, and aerial-photographic investigations.

31 State cited for Sacred Falls http://starbulletin
The state did not adequately warn park users of rockfall hazards, a judge rules The state was negligent in failing to adequately warn visitors of the falling-rock hazards at Sacred Falls State Park, a state judge has ruled. In his ruling, Del Rosario found that the rock fall was not due to an "act of God" as asserted by the state.

32 Rock slide shuts road at Waimea 3/6/00 http://starbulletin
DLNR Chief Geologist Glenn Bauer* (left) explains how the basalt boulder came crashing down on the Honda driven by Meredith Day (right, of Chico, Calif.). Candis Burton (center, of Sunset Beach) was a passenger. * Now retired

33 Haleiwa Blues Business has been falling like rocks on the highway

34 Partial List of Oahu Rockfalls (4) 2002 http://the. honoluluadvertiser
Aug. 9: A 5-ton boulder smashed into a Nu'uanu home, killing 26-year-old Dara Rei Onishi. Oct. 15: An early-morning slide sent a truckload of debris onto Kalaniana'ole Highway, prompting officials to close the road. Most of the rocks were small, officials said, with a few about 2 feet across. Nov. 24: A 2-pound rock fell from the cliffs above Makapu'u Beach and shattered the windshield of a car traveling in the Hawai'i Kai-bound lane. Two days later, a subcontractor working on the rockfall mitigation project on Kalaniana'ole Highway advised drivers to avoid the area during or after heavy rain, saying rainfall could further erode the cliffs and release loose rocks onto the road below. It was not raining at the time of the Nov. 24 incident. Nov. 28: After heavy rainfall, a dozen volleyball-size rocks fell from the cliffs above Makapu'u Beach, forcing closure of Kalaniana'ole Highway. Several hours later, two boulders tumbled down a hillside in Hawai'i Kai and struck a condominium at 7168 Hawai'i Kai Drive plus two vehicles. Fire officials said one boulder was about 4 feet by 4 feet, the other 4 feet by 6 feet.

35 1 Dead after Boulder Smashes Nuuanu Home 8/9/02 http://starbulletin
A 26-year-old Nuuanu woman was killed in her sleep early this morning when a six-ton boulder tumbled down a steep hillside and slammed into her bedroom. Rock Fall - Henry St. #1

36 Lalea Residents Face Months Of Uncertainty Three 100-Ton Boulders Pose Threat 12/10/2002 Hawaii Kai residents will be forced from their homes because of falling boulders may have to stay out for a month or two, officials said Monday. Two boulders came crashing down into the Lalea townhouses on Thanksgiving Day and geologists warned that three more 100-ton boulders could fall next. Geologists spent the day surveying the hillside above the development Monday. Crews secured more boulders with cable over the weekend, but residents want a comprehensive survey. "I know they did check it originally before we moved in, but that was six years ago. So my concern would be that the whole complex is safe from any rocks coming down from the hillside," Lalea resident John O'Neill said.

37 Partial List of Rockfalls on Oahu (9) and in Elsewhere in Hawaii 2003-2007
5/11/2004: Nuuanu Valley 9/14/2004: East Maui 1/26/2006: Nuuanu Valley 3/31/2006: Diamond Head 10/15/2006: Numerous rockfalls on Hawaii and Maui during M 6.7 earthquake 4/7/2007: Waimea Bay 5/28/2007: Diamond Head 11/4/2007: Aina Haina 11/4/2007: Palolo Valley 11/4/2007: Kailua 11/12/2007: Lalea

38 Boulder smashes into Nu'uanu home 5/10/04 http://the
"I'm lucky it went another way," said Hamakado, who has lived in her white house on Henry Street for 23 years Honolulu Police Department officer Jon Hinazumi, who was the first officer on scene two years ago when Dara Rei Onishi was killed in a similar accident nearby, was amazed such a freak event could happen in the same place twice. Rock Fall - Henry St. #2

39 Falling rock in East Maui kills national park ranger 9/14/04 A female ranger at Haleakala National Park was fatally injured yesterday while trying to clear a rockslide near the Kaapahu area in east Maui. She was hit by another rock from the nearby hillside, he said.

40 Boulder threatens home 1/26/06 http://starbulletin
… the same area where two large boulders recently crashed down hillsides. On Aug. 9, 2002, Dara Rei Onishi was killed by a 6-ton boulder that crashed into her parents' Henry Street home as she slept. On May 10, 2004, a 4-foot boulder fell down a mountainside and narrowly missed a Nuuanu woman and crashed into her house on Henry Street. On Thursday night the three boulders -- the biggest about 4 feet long by 2 1/2 feet wide -- careened down the hillside and became lodged above the two-story house at Kaimuohema Place. Rock Fall - Henry St. #3

41 Diamond Head rock fall fixed 4/10/2006 http://www. bizjournals
One of the last rain-related disruptions to Hawaii tourism has ended with the reopening of the road around Diamond Head following a rock slide.Workers under the supervision of the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources spent nine days on "emergency rock-fall mitigation" at the exterior base of Diamond Head State Monument. Heavy rains triggered a rock slide on March 31, immediately upslope of the third lookout on Diamond Head Road. That was the same night that Kahala Mall was flooded and Hawaiian Telcom, while retaking control of 80 computer systems from the Mainland, faced scores of rain-related phone outages.

42 Surveys to close Diamond Head 1/10/07 http://starbulletin
The Diamond Head State Monument will close early for four days this month for inspection for rockfall hazards. Here, hikers Sergio Niccolo, left, Milan Bolic, Jovana Bolic and Ivana Nedjic hiked the switchbacks down the trail after visiting the summit yesterday.

43 Waimea Bay rocked again 4/7/07 http://starbulletin

44 Rockfalls are persistent and expensive dilemma http://starbulletin
As the state continues work after Saturday's rockfall at Waimea Bay, officials are looking at other rockslide hazard sites and what needs to be done. Some four years since officials first listed the top 10 hazard locations, the work has been slow in coming, and officials are finding that fixing the problems will cost a lot of money. The state plans to do slope improvement work to the lower part of the cliff side at Makapuu along Kalanianaole Highway. The project is in the design process. Officials hope to start work later this year.... About $11 million was set aside in the budget for the project.

45 Owner of Diamond Head fallen rock ledge in dispute 5/28/07 … a rockfall Monday injured a 44-year-old woman…She suffered injuries to her upper body and was taken to the Queen's Medical Center by ambulance in serious condition ..it was not exactly a rockfall, but a "toppling or slumping event …" Two large chunks … broke off, one the size of a compact car and the other the size of a delivery truck

46 Aina Haina & Palolo Valley 11/4/07 http://www. honoluluadvertiser
A tarp covers the area where a boulder crashed through the bedroom wall of a home on 10th Avenue in Palolo. The boulder measured about 4 feet by 3 feet by 2 feet. Another 4-foot boulder crashed into the back of a house on Hao Street in 'Aina Haina following heavy rains, leaving behind this broken window and wall in the living room.

47 10-ton rock slams into Kailua home 11/4/07 http://starbulletin

48 Boulder crashes near site of 2002 Hawaii Kai rockslide 11/12/07 A 2 1/2-ton boulder fell from a hillside above the Lalea townhome complex in Hawai'i Kai Monday night and landed about 10 feet from a home where the family inside slept. The rockslide occurred a few hundred yards from where two boulders the size of garbage dumpsters crashed into parked cars in the Lalea complex on Thanksgiving Day 2002, forcing the evacuation of 26 families. Officials from Castle & Cooke, which developed the 290-unit complex, and Kamehameha Schools, which owns the hillside, said today that they were still evaluating the situation. Following the 2002 rockslides, the two organizations spent about $3 million to clear the hillside of debris and install wire fencing.

49 Boulder: Lalea Complex is Hit Again 11/12/07 http://starbulletin
A 2 1/2-ton boulder tumbled down a hillside in Hawaii Kai Monday into the Lalea townhouse complex. There were no injuries, and damage was limited to a concrete ditch and retaining wall, an access road surface and a fence. Lalea is the same subdivision where two boulders rolled down the side of Mariner's Ridge five years ago, damaging two cars and forcing the evacuation of 26 units. Monday's boulder came from a section of the hillside not covered by protective netting installed after the 2002 incident.

50 ~400-ton Boulder NW slope of Koko Crater 9/28/03

51 Estimated Costs since 1989 Process Key Events Estimated Cost Floods
1989, 2004 >$150 M Earthquakes 2006 $200 M Landslides 1989, 2007 >$50-$70 Rockfall 1999, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2007 >$50 M Debris Flows 1989, 1997 $10 M TOTAL >$500 M

52 Responses

53 H.B. NO. 1376 (2001) A BILL FOR AN ACT relating to public highways
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF HAWAII:SECTION 1. The legislature finds that there are several hazardous locations throughout the State public highway system that pose imminent danger to the health and safety of the residents of and visitors to the State. An example of this is the rock fall that recently occurred at Waimea bay and damaged a driver's car. ... Another example of a hazardous location that poses an imminent danger is the rock cliff at Makapuu point on the island of Oahu. … On numerous occasions, rocks and boulders of all sizes have fallen from the cliff onto Kalanianaole highway. …The legislature finds that the aforementioned hazardous locations along the State highway system also pose an imminent threat to the local and State economy. … This led to significant losses in productivity, retail and wholesale sales, a substantial decrease in visitor traffic to the area, increased transportation costs, and a major disruption to the lives and routines of area residents…Similarly, should a rock fall occur at Makapuu sufficient to cut-off through traffic on Kalanianaole highway, not only will life and limb be at risk, but it would have a devastating financial impact on the economy of the area and the State. …The legislature finds that it has been a matter of luck that more "Waimea's" have not occurred…

54 NEWS RELEASE Department of Transportation 10/28/2002
October 28, 2002  02-203 The state Department of Transportation announces that Governor Benjamin Cayetano signed a natural disaster proclamation for Kalanianaole Highway in the Makapuu area, which will expedite the Makapuu Rockfall Mitigation project.An informational meeting will be held tonight for the project at 7 p.m. in the Waimanalo School & Public Library, located at Kalanianaole Highway.The meeting agenda will include the proposed accelerated and compressed work schedule for the emergency rockfall mitigation measures along Kalanianaole Highway at Makapuu Point.All interested persons are invited to attend.###

55 State to tackle rock-fall dangers 3/28/2005 http://the
The state will spend more than $4 million to protect homes in Nu'uanu and motorists in Pacific Palisades as part of a growing effort to prevent injury and property damage from falling rocks. The Nu'uanu project marks the first time the state has taken protective measures near a residential area. DLNR Chairman Peter Young: "There are too many slopes in Hawai'i that have rocks that can fall down them," he said. "We are not inspecting every potential rock. You just can't do it. The scale is too great." Area resident Michael T. Jones was surprised to hear about the danger."I didn't even know there was a problem," he said.

56 State focuses on rock risks 5/30/2005 http://starbulletin
"There's no official survey, but when dangers are brought to our attention ... we can determine whether or not additional review is needed," said Morris Atta, special-projects coordinator for the state Department of Land and Natural Resources' Land Division. He said there has been discussion of generating a state- or islandwide assessment of rockfall hazards, but such a survey would likely cost millions. "We don't have the resources to do it," Atta said. "It's just a really daunting task." But he did say that DLNR is looking to tackle other rockfall hazards. For example, officials are looking to hire a consultant to analyze the risks to homes of rockfalls along Round Top Drive in Makiki. Christopher Prendergast stands next to a fence that was smashed earlier by boulders that rolled down the hill along Komo Mai Drive.

57 Hawaii to spend $14M to prevent rockfalls 7/25/07 http://the
Hawai'i plans to spend at least $14 million in the next two years to reduce the risk of rockslides…. almost as much as has been spent by the state since 2003. DLNR's current budget includes $2 million to make Diamond Head safer from rockfall dangers. But the latest estimate to do the work correctly has risen to $6 million. The quickened pace of new projects follows decades of hillside neglect in the Islands, said Cliff Tillotson, vice president of Santa Barbara, Calif.-based Prometheus Construction…. "Before, Hawai'i was like an ostrich with its head in the sand," Tillotson said. "There is a lot of work coming up in Hawai'i because of all of the rockfall problems," said Daniel Journeaux, president and owner of Quebec-based Janod Inc. Hawai'i's problems first piqued Journeaux's interest six years ago, when he began noticing more and more news stories "where there were fatalities and rockfall problems. They were getting more and more consistent."

58 Lingle tags $2M for Diamond Head rockfall mitigation 11/6/2007 Gov. Linda Lingle has released $2 million for ongoing rockfall mitigation and slope stabilization improvements to the interior and exterior areas of the Diamond Head State Monument on O'ahu, including at the entrance into the crater and along Diamond Head Road. "This project is a critical part of our initiative to ensure the safety of Hawai'i's state parks and facilities and will protect park users and home owners with residences along Diamond Head's exterior slopes," Lingle said in a news release.

59 GOVERNOR LINGLE RELEASES $800,000 FOR ROCKFALL MITIGATION ON KAUA‘I 11/06/07 HONOLULU – Governor Linda Lingle has released $800,000 for rockfall mitigation in Waimea, Kaua‘i.  The project will protect a private residence from potential rockfall hazards originating from state-owned land located upslope from the residence. “This rockfall mitigation project is an example of the proactive approach we are taking to ensure public safety,” said Governor Lingle.

60 Natural Hazards in Hawaii
Sole state with no Geological Survey No staff No budget No archive of data or maps

61 Natural Hazards in Hawaii
Sole state with no Geological Survey No staff No budget No archive of data or maps State is reactionary, not prepared Long history of not learning from past events

62 Natural Hazards in Hawaii
Sole state with no Geological Survey No staff No budget No archive of data or maps State is reactionary, not prepared Long history of not learning from past events Powerful local interests thwart legislation Inadequate training of local professionals State ineligible for certain federal funds Possible loss of federally-subsidized flood insurance

63 A Role for SOEST & GG SOEST has expertise & potential… GG: Fletcher
Garcia Houghton Martel Sinton Wessel HIGP: Brooks Fagents Harris Wolfe

64 A Role for SOEST & GG SOEST has expertise & potential…
Expertise is uncoordinated State funding for research and graduate education absent or unreliable (except for Fletcher) Opportunities for excellence in research & teaching and critical state service is being missed - SOEST could change this GG has identified natural hazard mitigation as a key area in its strategic plan

65

66 Partial Listing of Damaging Geologic Events since 1989
Landslides Palolo Valley (now) Manoa Valley (1989 - Big Island lava delta collapses (5/19/93, 5/10/07) Rockfall Sacred Falls (8 dead, 50 injured) Makapuu (Kalanianiole Highway; 3/6/00, 4/7/07) Waimea (Kalanianiole Highway) Nuuanu (3 rockfalls on Henry St., , 1 death) Lalea (Hawaii Kai), Palolo, Aina Haina, Kailuea, … Debris Flows and Floods East Oahu (1989) Waianae Coast (11/1996) Makaha (11/1996; 11/1996) Manoa Valley (2006) Manoa Valley (Halloween, 2004; ~$100M damage to UH)

67

68

69 Natural Hazards in Hawaii
Volcanic Earthquake Landslides Rockfall Debris flows Floods Tsunami Beach erosion Dam Safety*

70 * The actual avalanche is poorly represented by this illustration
Rock Avalanche - Sacred Falls How it Happened* * The actual avalanche is poorly represented by this illustration

71 Boulder threatens home Three large rocks are lodged above a Nuuanu residence 1/26/06 On Thursday night the three boulders -- the biggest about 4 feet long by 2 1/2 feet wide -- careened down the hillside and became lodged above the two-story house at Kaimuohema Place. Neighbors informed Heafner that the Department of Land and Natural Resources would not send geologists to survey the situation since the property was privately owned.

72 Barreling boulder hits Nuuanu home 5/10/04 http://starbulletin
A woman escapes serious injury in a house one block from a fatal boulder fall in 2002

73 Overnight mudslide closes Roundtop Drive 3/22/06 http://khon
Roundtop Drive in Makiki was reopened Wednesday morning around 9 o'clock following a massive mudslide overnight. The mud, about six feet high at some points on the road, fell around two o'clock Wednesday morning, during the heavy rains. An Oahu Civil Defense spokesman says this area has had mudslides in the past.

74 Debris Flow - Manoa Valley 3/21?/06 http://www.kgmb.com/kgmb/display.cfm?storyID=7615
Home Spared, Neighborhood Not "All I can say is 'not again'," said resident Ken Numasaki. The mess was coming down from up high - from behind the house a mudslide rammed into a week ago.   Manoa Valley home

75 New TV show to document Sacred Falls’ tragic rockfall A new Travel Channel show may debut in early summer with a segment about the Mother’s Day Sacred Falls tragedy. “Secrets of Travel Survival” is filming this week on Oahu using a local camera crew, said producer Frank Snepp. The show will focus on advising travelers to play it safe when they are exploring unknown locations.” We will advise them to be sensible, find out about the weather, if there have been any incidents in the area," Snepp said. He [Snepp] acknowledged that the May 9, 1999, Sacred Falls rockfall, in which eight people were killed and 34 injured, is not something anyone could have known was going to happen. The show will give general tips such as heading for a valley wall in the event of a rockfall.

76 H.B. NO. 1376 A BILL FOR AN ACT relating to public highways
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF HAWAII:SECTION 1. The legislature finds that there are several hazardous locations throughout the State public highway system that pose imminent danger to the health and safety of the residents of and visitors to the State. An example of this is the rock fall that recently occurred at Waimea bay and damaged a driver's car. ... Another example of a hazardous location that poses an imminent danger is the rock cliff at Makapuu point on the island of Oahu. … On numerous occasions, rocks and boulders of all sizes have fallen from the cliff onto Kalanianaole highway. …The legislature finds that the aforementioned hazardous locations along the State highway system also pose an imminent threat to the local and State economy. … This led to significant losses in productivity, retail and wholesale sales, a substantial decrease in visitor traffic to the area, increased transportation costs, and a major disruption to the lives and routines of area residents…Similarly, should a rock fall occur at Makapuu sufficient to cut-off through traffic on Kalanianaole highway, not only will life and limb be at risk, but it would have a devastating financial impact on the economy of the area and the State. …The legislature finds that it has been a matter of luck that more "Waimea's" have not occurred…

77 Highway Rockfall Sites on Oahu http://starbulletin
1. Kalanianaole Highway at Makapuu 2. Kamehameha Highway near Waimea Bay 3. Kamehameha Highway near Kahuku 4. Pali Highway, Kailua bound, side of roadway past Castle Junction 5. Pali Highway, Kaneohe side of roadway at Castle Juntion 6. Kamehameha Highway near Kipapa Gulch Bridge 7. Kamehameha Highway near Wahiawa 8. Pali Highway just before Kailua Town 9. Farrington Highway before Yokohama Bay 10. Kamehameha Highway near Wahiawa

78 Hawaii Kai

79 15 Seconds http://starbulletin.com/2006/10/16/


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