Presentation on theme: "Training Models in Clinical Psychology: Overview James H. Johnson, Ph.D., ABPP/Child."— Presentation transcript:
Training Models in Clinical Psychology: Overview James H. Johnson, Ph.D., ABPP/Child
Variations in Training Boulder (Scientist-Practitioner) Model – 1949 Vail (Scholar-Professional) Model – 1973 Clinical Science Model - 1990
WW II and the Need for Psychologists WW II and focus of the government on increasing the pool of trained mental health professionals Government initiatives involving VA and USPHS and APA Grants to Psychology departments that provided clinical training Funding for students pursuing graduate training in clinical psychology VA provided practicum sites and internships GI Bill to support graduate training
In Search of a Training Model David Shakow, the Committee on Training in Clinical Psychology – The Shakow Report – 1947 Boulder Conference – 1949 (70 participants) Equal weight to science and practice PhD as the required degree Training within a university setting Psychologists were to be scientist-practitioners prepared to work in academia or clinical practice Since 1949 has been the dominant model for Clinical Psychology Training
The Practitioner Model: In the Beginning Questions about adequacy of the Boulder Model. Interest in training for practice as is the case in law, dentistry, and medicine 1951 Gordon Derner (PhD from Columbia) developed the first scholar-practitioner program at Adelphi Focus on training practitioners – Allow research finding to inform practice but without focus on development of research skills. Was not able to get APA approval until 1957 and only after a battle and a number of appeals Derner was the founding President of the National Council of Schools of Professional Psychology
Development of the PsyD Degree First Doctor of Psychology Degree program – University of Illinois, 1968 Developed by Donald Peterson and designed to produce clinicians to engage in applied clinical work. Coursework like Ph.D. students but focus on clinical work – and clinical project instead of research dissertation. Program was found to be incompatible with the academic values of most Illinois faculty and was soon discontinued.
The California School of Professional Psychology In the late 1960’s California Psychological Association notes lack of sufficient doctoral level psychologists in the state. Lobbied state of CA get universities to increase number of clinical psychologists Didn’t work and CPA on its own, under leadership of Nicholas Cummings, founded the California School of Professional Psychology
The California School of Professional Psychology Branches in LA, Berkeley, San Diego, and others. Focus on training practicing clinicians Offered the Doctor of Psychology Degree Programs housed in independent schools of Professional Psychology rather than University departments. Very few full time faculty – mostly part-time training faculty Large classes – little financial assistance Primary organization is National Council of Schools of Professional Psychology
Vail Conference In 1973 the national training conference in Vail Colorado was successful in legitimizing practitioner oriented clinical psychology training programs Despite objections from academic types, such programs now turn out almost as many graduates as do Boulder Model programs
Growth of the Professional School Movement In recent years the number of practitioner oriented training programs has increased dramatically Such program are found in free-standing professional school, in psychology departments, and separate schools of psychology within universities. Again, almost half of the doctorates graduating each year, come from professional schools
Boulder Model and Professional School Programs Compared Boulder model programs still outnumber PsyD programs, the PsyD programs enroll three times the number of doctoral candidates. Boulder model programs train clinical psychologist to conduct research; PsyD programs train graduates to be consumers of research Ph.D graduates more likely to be employed in academic positions and in medical schools than are clinical psychologists with the PsyD degree.
Boulder Model and Professional School Programs Compared Acceptance rates and financial support Freestanding PsyD programs acceptance rates average about 40% PsyD average number accepted = 46; Ph.D = 9 Ph.D programs accept on average about 15% of those applying. 70 – 80% of students in Ph.D programs get full financial assistance, while only 18% of students in PsyD programs get this. Pay-as-you-go plan for about three-fourths of PsyD graduate students. Student debt for PsyD students = 53 – 60 thousand; Debt for Ph.D students is about $ 22,000 (median)
Boulder Model and Professional School Programs Compared Length of Training Students in Ph.D. programs take about 1 to 1.5 years longer to complete graduate training Licensure Exam performance PsyD students, on average, perform significantly lower on the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP). Difference likely applies to larger free-standing PsyD programs. Strong link between smaller classes and more faculty and better scores on licensure exam.
The Clinical Science Model Impetus for Clinical Science training was “Manifesto for a Science of Clinical Psychology” (McFall 1991) Presidential address for Section 3 of Division 12 (Section for the Development of Clinical Psychology as an Experimental Behavioral Science) Began a movement that has resulted in a number of clinical science programs and the development of the Academy of Psychological Clinical Science.
The Clinical Science Model: Cardinal Principles and Corollaries Scientific Clinical Psychology is the only Legitimate and Acceptable form of Clinical Psychology Psychological services should not be administered to the public (except under strict experimental control) until they have satisfied four minimal criteria: The exact nature of the service must be described clearly The claimed benefits of the service must be stated explicitly These claimed benefits must be validated scientifically Possible negative side effects that might outweigh benefits must be ruled out empirically
The Clinical Science Model: Cardinal Principles and Corollaries The primary and overriding objective of doctoral training programs in clinical psychology must be to produce the most competent clinical scientists possible. General focus is on becoming a clinical scientist and this may or may not involve applied clinical activities. All applied clinical work engaged in needs to be evidence-based.
So What Type of Training Scientist-Practitioner ? Scholar-Practitioner ? Clinical Scientist ? Pros? Cons? Preferences?