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Definitions Bioaccumulation Bioaccumulation is the process by which substances not readily broken down or excreted can build up and be stored in living.

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Presentation on theme: "Definitions Bioaccumulation Bioaccumulation is the process by which substances not readily broken down or excreted can build up and be stored in living."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Definitions Bioaccumulation Bioaccumulation is the process by which substances not readily broken down or excreted can build up and be stored in living tissue (usually in fatty tissue.) Biomagnification, bioamplification Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification, is the process by which substances become more concentrated in the bodies of consumers as one moves up the food chain (trophic levels). Bioaccumulation Bioaccumulation is the process by which substances not readily broken down or excreted can build up and be stored in living tissue (usually in fatty tissue.) Biomagnification, bioamplification Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification, is the process by which substances become more concentrated in the bodies of consumers as one moves up the food chain (trophic levels).

4 FACTORS AFFECTING BIOACCUMULATION 1.Some chemicals bind to specific sites in the body, particularly in fatty tissue, prolonging their stay.

5 FACTORS AFFECTING BIOACCUMULATION 2.Chemicals that are immediately eliminated do not bioaccumulate.

6 FACTORS AFFECTING BIOACCUMULATION 3.Duration of exposure is also a factor in bioaccumulation. Most exposures to chemicals in the environment vary continually in concentration and duration, sometimes including periods of no exposure.

7 FACTORS AFFECTING BIOACCUMULATION 4.Bioaccumulation varies between individual organisms as well as between species. Large, fat, long-lived individuals or species with low rates of metabolism or excretion of a chemical will bioaccumulate more than small, thin, short-lived organisms. – Thus, an old lake trout may bioaccumulate much more than a young bluegill in the same lake. 4.Bioaccumulation varies between individual organisms as well as between species. Large, fat, long-lived individuals or species with low rates of metabolism or excretion of a chemical will bioaccumulate more than small, thin, short-lived organisms. – Thus, an old lake trout may bioaccumulate much more than a young bluegill in the same lake.

8 FACTORS AFFECTING BIOACCUMULATION 5.Because of the loss of energy* at each trophic level, more biomass must be consumed at each level. Therefore, the concentration of DDT increases as one moves up the food chain. *Only 10% of the energy from one trophic level moves to the next trophic level. 5.Because of the loss of energy* at each trophic level, more biomass must be consumed at each level. Therefore, the concentration of DDT increases as one moves up the food chain. *Only 10% of the energy from one trophic level moves to the next trophic level.

9 Case Study: DDT DDT DDT is a pesticide that was widely used until being banned in the U.S. in 1972 DDT is a POP (Persistent Organic Pollutant) & does not easily biodegrade DDT DDT accumulates in living tissue, particularly in fat tissue High concentrations in some bird species caused failure of eggs by thinning the shells (effect on endocrine system DDT DDT is a pesticide that was widely used until being banned in the U.S. in 1972 DDT is a POP (Persistent Organic Pollutant) & does not easily biodegrade DDT DDT accumulates in living tissue, particularly in fat tissue High concentrations in some bird species caused failure of eggs by thinning the shells (effect on endocrine system

10 DDT EFFECTS ON ORGANISMS NEUROTOXIN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR (HAA) TERATOGEN NEUROTOXIN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR (HAA) TERATOGEN AFFECTING THE NERVOUS SYSTEM IN FISH DISRUPTS FUNCTIONING OF HORMONAL SYSTEM, MISCARRIAGE, REDUCED BIRTH WT, PRE-TERM BIRTH CAUSES BIRTH/DEVELOPMENTAL DEFECTS (ESPECIALLY GENDER RELATED) AFFECTING THE NERVOUS SYSTEM IN FISH DISRUPTS FUNCTIONING OF HORMONAL SYSTEM, MISCARRIAGE, REDUCED BIRTH WT, PRE-TERM BIRTH CAUSES BIRTH/DEVELOPMENTAL DEFECTS (ESPECIALLY GENDER RELATED)

11 U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Center for Coastal Geology This page is: Case Study: Methyl Mercury

12 Mercury Health Effects

13 Case Study: PCBs PCBs, or polychlorinated biphenyls, are a group of man-made chemicals. Introduced in 1929 and widely used in electrical transformers, cosmetics, varnishes, inks, carbonless copy paper, pesticides and for general weatherproofing and fire-resistant coatings to wood and plastic. The federal government banned the production of PCBs in 1976 PCBs can effect the immune system, fertility, child development and possibly increase the risk of certain cancers PCBs, or polychlorinated biphenyls, are a group of man-made chemicals. Introduced in 1929 and widely used in electrical transformers, cosmetics, varnishes, inks, carbonless copy paper, pesticides and for general weatherproofing and fire-resistant coatings to wood and plastic. The federal government banned the production of PCBs in 1976 PCBs can effect the immune system, fertility, child development and possibly increase the risk of certain cancers

14 Other substances with potential to biomagnify PAH's - polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (component of petroleum products) cyanide (used in leaching gold & used in fishing) Selenium (concentrated by farming desert soils) PAH's - polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (component of petroleum products) cyanide (used in leaching gold & used in fishing) Selenium (concentrated by farming desert soils) Heavy metals: (many from mining &/or metal processing) mercury copper cadmium chromium lead nickel zinc tin (TBT or tributyltin) Heavy metals: (many from mining &/or metal processing) mercury copper cadmium chromium lead nickel zinc tin (TBT or tributyltin)

15 BIOMAGNIFICATION WRAPUP son13/l13la1.html son13/l13la1.html Which organisms in an environment are most affected by DDT? son13/l13la1.html son13/l13la1.html Which organisms in an environment are most affected by DDT?

16 Which Organisms Are Most Affected by DDT? Top-level consumers Animals in aquatic environments Infants Mothers Birds of prey Top-level consumers Animals in aquatic environments Infants Mothers Birds of prey Biomagnification up the food chain Aquatic food chains more extensive & bioaccumulation is greater DDT transferred through mother’s milk; greater risk due to size & reduced ability to detox system Ingesting fish/milk/healthy foods during pregnancy Endocrine systems affected so eggs do not harden, offspring die Biomagnification up the food chain Aquatic food chains more extensive & bioaccumulation is greater DDT transferred through mother’s milk; greater risk due to size & reduced ability to detox system Ingesting fish/milk/healthy foods during pregnancy Endocrine systems affected so eggs do not harden, offspring die


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