Presentation on theme: "INTERNATIONAL AND CULTURAL ASPECT OF LEADERSHIP"— Presentation transcript:
1INTERNATIONAL AND CULTURAL ASPECT OF LEADERSHIP Amir Akbar
2Key Dimensions Of Differences In Cultural Values Individualism / CollectivismIndividualismPeople give priority to their own interest, more concern with own career ( USA, CANADA, UK)CollectivismTop priority to group and society, greater concern about organization (Japan, Hong Kong, Mexico and Greece etc.)
3Key Dimensions Of Differences In Cultural Values Power distanceHigh Power distanceBoss makes decision, group member readily comply (France, Spain, Japan, Mexico)Lower Power distanceAccept direction when convinced (Israel, Ireland, USA, Germany)
4Key Dimensions Of Differences In Cultural Values Uncertainty AvoidanceLower uncertainty AvoidancePeople accept unknown and tolerate risk.Not afraid to face unknown(USA, Canada Austria)High Uncertainty avoidance.Society contain majority of people who want predictable and certain futures (Japan, Italy, Israel, Argentine)
5Key Dimensions Of Differences In Cultural Values Masculinity / FemininityMasculinity:Refers to an emphasis on assertiveness and acquisition of money and material objects. De-emphasizes caring for others. Japan Italy.Femininity:Refers to an emphasis on personal relationships, concern for others and high quality life Sweden, Denmark.
6Key Dimensions Of Differences In Cultural Values Long Term / Short term OrientationLong Term :Have long time perspective, do not demand quick return on investments (Pacific Rim Countries)Short Term :Demand immediate result (USA, Canada)
7Key Dimensions Of Differences In Cultural Values Formality / InformalityFormality.Country attaches considerable importance to a tradition, ceremony, social rules etc (Latin America)Informality :Refers to casual attitude toward traditions etc(USA –Canadian people)
8Key Dimensions Of Differences In Cultural Values Urgent Time /Casual TimeHow much importance given to timeUrgent time :People perceive time as an scare asset and tend to be impatient (USA imposes dead lines)Casual time :People view time as an ultimate and unending resources and tend to be patient (Asians, Middle East)
9Dimensions of individual values IndividualismCollectivismHigh power distanceLow power distanceHigh uncertainty avoidanceLow uncertainty avoidanceMasculinityFemininityLong term orientationShort term orientationInformalityFormalityUrgent time orientationCasual time orientation
10Understanding Cultural Environment Organizations are no longer limited to national borders.
11Understanding Cultural Environment BMW (German Company) making cars in South Carolina.MCDonald sells burger all around the worldToyota makes cars in Kentucky
12Understanding Cultural Environment General Motors makes cars in BrazilMercedeze Sports cars are made in Alabama
13Understanding Cultural Environment Siemens, Motorola, Nokia sells its products all around the world.
14Understanding Cultural Environment Siemens, Motorola, Nokia sells its products all around the world.
15Understanding Cultural Environment All countries have different values, morals, political and economic system and laws.More appropiate way is to recognize the cultural dimensions of a country enviornment.In US individualistic society, in Japan people care for all individual.
16Understanding Cultural Environment Managers should have understanding of the culture of the areas around the globe in which they may send employeesThey should also develop mechanism that will help multicultural individuals to work together.
17Changing World of Technology 25 years ago no one had aFax MachineMobile PhoneInternet
18Changing World of Technology Silicon Chip has changed the whole future.The first wave was agriculture. 19th Century (1890s) 90% of people were employed in agriculture-related jobs.The second wave was industrialization. Societies moved from agriculture to industrial society,
19Cultural Sensitivity Leaders , while attempting to influence others Must be alert to possible cultural differencesMust acquire knowledge about local customsMust be patient, adaptable, flexible , willing to learn & listenLearn to speak native languagePortray why people of another culture act as they doKnowledge of cultural sensitivity helps in making better relationship with other people
20Cultural Sensitivity Language : Essential to understand each other To know and understand why people of another cultureact as they do leader should be watchful about :Language : Essential to understand each otherReligion : Religion dominates life in many countriesWork Habits : In some culture people are unwilling tospend personal time on workWomen’s Roles : Women do not have similarindependence or access to education and higher level jobsPersonal Appearance and Behaviour : Grooming,eating habits, non-verbal communication
21MANAGING FOR DIVERSITY Corporate success, profit and growth depend increasingly on the management of a diverse workforceBusiness has also become increasingly globalModern leader therefore must be multicultural
22Managing For Diversity For diverse workforce ethical and social responsibilitygoals are requiredEthics :Fair treatment is considered morally right by deontological viewDeontological approach : Based on universal principles of honesty, fairness, justice and respect for person and propertySuch leaders feel compelled to use merit for making HR decisions
23Managing For Diversity For diverse workforce ethical and social responsibilitygoals are requiredSocial responsibility :Social responsibility and ethics relate to goodness and morality of leader and organizationFor organizations, it is the impact on society beyond doing what is ethical or legal