Why was the first list easier? The ability to remember a word depends on how meaningful the word is to a person. Additionally, the "concreteness" of a word is important for memory. Concreteness refers the ability of a word to form a mental image. A word with high concreteness is easy to "see"; a word with low concreteness (an "abstract" word) is difficult to visualize.
Transferring information so the nervous system can process it Visual Code Acoustic Code Semantic Code
Process by which information is remembered over a period of time. A few seconds ? Depends on effort during encoding…
Process of obtaining information that has been stored in memory How well it is retrieved depends on how effectively it was encoded and stored!
3 Types of Memory 1.Sensory Memory 2.Short Term Memory 3.Long Term Memory
Sensory Memory Very brief (1-2 seconds) memory storage immediately following initial stimulation of a receptor. Two Types: Iconic Memory – visual sensory information Echoic Memory – auditory sensory information
Sensory Memory Prevents us from being overwhelmed… Anything you do not pay attention to vanishes in seconds Gives us some decision time Allows you to decide whether it is worth paying attention to. If you choose to pay attention, the info is automatically transferred to short-term memory.
Short Term Memory The capacity for holding a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time Capacity? Limited to about seven unrelated items. (+/- 2)
M EMORY A CTIVITY You are about to do a short term memory test. A few letters will flash on the screen for 4 seconds. Your job is to write down as many letters as you can remember AFTER they disappear.
Strategy? What (if anything) did you do to help yourself remember the letters?
STM… Maintenance Rehearsal: a system for remembering that involves repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it. Chunking: the process of grouping items to make them easier to remember
Experiment: 1.Number your papers from one to twenty. 2.You will see a list of terms - try to remember them in order.
Going Shopping!!! Memorize the list of items below starting now Milk Cheese Butter Eggs Flour Apples Grapes Shampoo Bread Ground Beef Cereal Ketchup Green Beans Jam Pickles Bologna Oranges Coffee Hash Browns Yogurt
Primacy/Recency Effect The middle items on a list typically are harder to remember because your attention is split between trying to remember previous items and trying to rehearse new ones. WORKING MEMORY: Working with current information STM is also referred to as this LTM can also fit here – info stored being recalled for current purposes
Long Term Memory The storage of and UNLIMITED AMOUNT of information over extended periods of time…(forever?) LTM involves all the previous processes
Types of LTM Procedural: Permanent storage of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection Declarative: stored knowledge that can be called forth consciously as needed Episodic: Chronological retention of the events of one’s life Everyone’s is unique Semantic: Knowledge of language, including its rules, words and meaning Shared with other speakers of language
1. First kiss 10. Using a computer 2. Riding a bike 11. Spell C-A-T 3. First day in high school 12. Playing the piano 4. List the 50 states 13. Describe a fight to someone 5. Define “memory” 6. Tying a shoe 7. Writing notes off an overhead 8. Formula for classical conditioning 9. Witnessing a car accident