Presentation on theme: "Veal is the meat of young, usually male calves that are byproducts of the dairy industry. Dairy cows must calve before they produce milk and calves (male)"— Presentation transcript:
Veal is the meat of young, usually male calves that are byproducts of the dairy industry. Dairy cows must calve before they produce milk and calves (male) that are not used are used are slaughtered to make veal. Generally these calves are 8-16 weeks old and should not have eaten grass yet (milkfed). Veal is slaughtered and split into two halves across the natural curvature – foresaddle and hindsaddle containing both bilateral portions of the animal. These days although veal at times is split in halves like beef as well.
Shoulder The primal shoulder is similar to the beef primal chuck but contains only 4 ribs (5 in beef). Mainly used for ground meat or cubed for stewing or braising although steaks and chops can be fabricated but are less tender than those of the loin and rib areas. Deboned the shoulder can be roasted and/or stuffed and roasted
Forshank & Breast Located beneath the shoulder and considered as one primal although mostly used separately. The bones of the young calve in the breast area are still soft (cartilaginous) and the breast contains lots of fat and connective tissue. Moist cooking methods like braising breaks down during the cooking process and make the result very flavorful. Deboned the breast can be rolled and stuffed, cut in cubes for stews (blanquette, fricasse) or ground.
Rib The double rib also known as the veal hotel rack is very tender and expensive. The double rib consist of two racks connected by the backbone and is often sold split and can be deboned to produce two veal rib eye. On the inside of the rib is a portion of the veal tenderloin, however mostly the tenderloin is removed whole before separating the foresaddle form the hindsaddle. The rib is cut into chops and the deboned rib eye into steaks which are excellent for grilling, sautéing or braising.
Loin The veal loin is the continuation of the rib and contains ribs 12 & 13. The loin consist of the loin eye muscle, the rib bones and the tenderloin imbedded on the inside of the two sides. The veal loin is very tender and the tenderloin is the most tender part of the veal. The tenderloin is mostly removed ahead of separating the leg and cut into medallions for dry cooking methods. The rib eye muscle can be cooked on or off the bone as roast or in chops (on or off the bones).
Leg The primal veal leg consist of both the sirloin and the leg (incl. shank) Although the meat is fairly tender, the leg is mostly fabricated into cutlets and scallops. To fabricate these cuts the leg needs to be broken down into its parts, trimmed of the connecting tissue and cut against the grain of main and further tenderized/flattened with a mallet: Top round Eye round Knuckle Sirloin Bottom round (includes the sirloin) Butt tenderloin (if not removed prior) The hindshank is meatier than the foreshank and roasted or braised whole or sliced across for Osso bucco.
Several organs called offal or innards of beef and veal are used in the food service industry. Beef Heart / tongue / tripe (stomach lining) / liver / kidney / oxtail / Veal Heart / tongue / liver / kidney / oxtail Sweetbreads (the thymus gland only used in young veal and lamb). These glands shrink when the animals get older.
Lamb- Lamb is the meat of sheep generally below 1 year of age Mutton – young female or castrated male sheep older than one year with more than two incisor teeth Hogget – young male or maiden female sheep with no more than two incisor teeth Baby Lamb – milk-fed lamb 6-8 weeks old, non grass/grain eater Spring lamb- milk fed lamb 3-5 months old, non grass/grain eater
New Zealand & Australia United States Argentina Europe United Kingdom - Wales and Scotland are particularly famous for their lamb Ireland
Pyrenees lamb 45 days old; 11 to 15 kg weight Exclusively milk fed From the southern French Pyrenees mountains Perigord lamb 90 to 150 days old; 60 days milk fed; 15 to 19 kg From central France region Paulliac lamb: Protected by European law, born and raised in the Gironde area of France Raised by mother milk only, resulting in pink rich tender meat. Kidneys are especially delicate. 75 days old and11 to 15 kg
Pre-Sale lamb From lambs that grazed on the salty herbal borderlands of north-western France, that periodically drenched by seawater. The high consumption of salt results in a more tender meat with juicier muscle tissue.
Lamb has a strong distinctive flavor and needs to be complemented with bold flavored sauces and accompaniments Meat from mutton and hogget is more distinct in flavor and tougher meat due to age and to the maturity of the connecting tissues.
The slaughtered lamb is butchered into the primal cuts: Shoulder Breast Rack Loin Leg As the carcass is not split after the slaughtering, some primal cuts of lamb contain both halves (legs for example). Lamb primal cuts are not classified into fore and hind quarters or fore and hind saddle like beef or veal.
Shoulder The primal shoulder contains many small bones and tough muscles whose grains travel in different direction. This fact make it difficult to cook and carve a whole shoulder although the shoulder may be cut into chops or deboned and (slow) roasted or braised. Mostly though lamb shoulder meat is cut for stews or ground for patties
Breast The primal cut lamb breast includes the breast and the foreshank. The primal breast is located beneath the primal rack and contains the rib tips. Which are cut off to produce the rack. The lamb breast is not often used in the food service industry it can be stuffed and braised. The left over rib tips can be separated and are then called Denver ribs. The lamb foreshanks are meaty and can be braised used for broths or ground.
Rack The primal lamb rack is also known as hotel rack (saddle) and located between the primals shoulder and loin containing eight ribs and a portion of the back bone. The rack is valued for the tender rib eye muscle. The hotel rack is usually split and trimmed so that each set of ribs can easily be cut into chops. The rack can be grilled/broiled or roasted as rack or cut into lamb or single or double chops before cooking. Frenched lamb rack refers to a split rack, trimmed to the bones and cleaned bones ready to use.
Loin The loin is between the rack and the leg and contains rib number 13, portions of the backbone and the loin eye muscle, tenderloin and flank. Except for the flank the meat is very tender and excellent for dry heat cooking – roasting and grilling/broiling. The loin can be deboned for to produce roasts or boneless chops or cut with bone in into chops. The loin eye can be deboned and cut into medallions or noisettes.
Leg The lamb leg is separated from the loin by a straight cut leaving what would be the sirloin portion (in beef) as part of the leg. The primal leg is seldom used as is, as it mostly is split into two legs partially deboned or fully deboned. The lamb leg meat is quite tender especially the sirloin end of the leg and suitable for a variety of cooking methods while the shank is less tender and needs to be braised.
Leg The bone in leg is often roasted for carvery on buffets but can also be made into bone in lamb leg steaks. They can also be deboned and netted for roasting. Special cuts: Fore saddle – the front portion of the carcass separated from the hind saddle on the 12 th or 13 th rib. It includes the primal shoulder, breast, fore shank and rack. Hind saddle – the back portion of the carcass as described above. It includes the loin, leg and kidneys Back – the trimmed rack and loin in one piece Bracelet – the primal hotel rack with connecting breast section
Innards The lamb brain is a delicacy and can be roasted or sautéed. Lamb kidneys are used in pies as well as they can be sautéed. Lamb liver is seldom used although it can be eaten and is very tender.
Game are animals hunted for sports or food. Originally game was dependent on seasons and the hunters success but the increased demand of the food service industry has led to farms raising game mainly for food production purposes. Pheasant, quail, and deer are now all available farmed throughout the year. Game meat generally is dark in color and has a strong but pleasant with robust flavor and less fat than meat and poultry. Cooking methods for game meat depend on the age of the animal and the cut used, but in general one can follow the guidelines for meat and poultry.
Furred or Ground Game Deer, wild boar, bison, moose, elk, hare etc Feathered or Winged Game Quail, pheasant, partridge, wild duck, snipe. grouse Exotic Meats and Reptiles Snakes, kangaroo, crocodile or alligator etc
Furred or Ground Game These include large animals such as deer, moose, wild boar kangaroo, and elk as well as smaller animals like hare (wild rabbit). There are many more animals that generally speaking are hunted and could be eaten, but are not readily available in the food service industry – Zebra, bear and other big game. Butchering game meat generally follows the same principals as with beef or lamb – primal and sub- primal, but mostly only pre-butchered and precut parts are available for purchase.
Antelope Farmed in the US, wild in Africa Meat is low on fat but retains moisture when cooked Tender parts can be sautéed or grilled tougher part need to be braised Bison (American Buffalo) The meat is in general cooked like beef Deer The deer family includes elk, mule deer, reindeer, red-tailed and white-tailed deer and is generally known as venison. Farm raised in New Zealand and US Dark very lean meat cooked according to general guidelines
Hare Rabbit the domesticated hare is handled under poultry Hare has dark meat and is quite tough with the exception for the loin Well suited for braising and casseroles Well suited for pates and terrines Wild boar Leaner and darker meat than pork, strong flavored Wild boar is only available through autumn ranch raised is available all year Baby boar (below 6 months) is considered a delicacy Mostly roasted in pieces but also used for sausages and terrines Water Buffalo Used in Asia and butchered the same way as beef Fairly tough meat and combination cooking methods suit the best
Feathered game includes the wild turkey, pheasants, quail, waterfowls like wild geese and duck, partridge, grouse, doves, woodcocks and more although not all birds hunted are readily sold for food production. Wild birds are not permitted to be sold in the US but in Europe and other countries they are. There is a growing number of farmed wild birds available – quail, pheasants etc.
Partridge May be roasted whole or cut in pieces and braised 450 g in weight Pheasant Excellent for roasting, stewing or braising and often used for consommés or essences Flavorful tender meat 700-1 kg in weight Quail Good for grilling, roasting (stuffed), broiling or sautéing Very lean and often barded 30-60 g per piece Young quails are also called squabs
There are a multitude of other meats that might be specialties in some countries or regions and/or cuisines available for consumption. Kangaroo Snake Alligator / Crocodile Yak These meats in general are not aged and need to be stewed or braised until tender.
Grading Game meat is not graded as domestic animals or poultry would be and voluntary inspections only confirm the wholesomeness of the producer. Meat inspections are done in accordance with the federal inspection requirements. Marinating Traditionally game has been marinated in red wine, oil, herbs and spice to aid tenderness and to cover up the “wild game taste” With farmed animals these is increasingly not necessary anymore