Biodiesel Feedstocks Canola Soybeans Sunflower Linseed Safflower Corn oil Rapeseed Which is best?
Plants utilize photosynthesis to convert solar energy into chemical energy. Different plants produce usable oil at different rates. For Example: Soybean : 40 to 50 US gal/acre (35 to 45,000 L/km²) Rapeseed : 110 to 145 US gal/acre (100 to 130,000 L/km²) Mustard : 140 US gal/acre (130,000 L/km²) Jatropha : 175 US gal/acre (160,000 L/km²) Palm oil : 650 US gal/acre (580,000 L/km²) Algae : 10,000 to 20,000 US gal/acre (9,000,000 to 18,000,000 L/km²) http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/reportsdatabase/default.asp Q? How much energy goes into growing and harvesting these feedstocks? Q? What are the fertilizer requirements for each of these feedstocks?
Making biodiesel – green refineries of the future? 100 g soybean oil 100.4 g biodiesel + 10.9 g methanol + 10.4 g glycerol
Soybeans More than 50% of the fatty acids are linoleic acid!
A polyunsaturated fatty acid C 18 H 32 O 2 How does this compare with diesel fuel?
Biodiesel products are similar to conventional petrodiesel Cetane (C 16 H 34 ) Methyl Linolenate (C 19 H 32 O 2 ) A fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) BIODIESEL COMPONENT An unbranched alkane (paraffin) PETERODIESEL COMPONENT
NEW!! Biodiesel Roadmap EsterAlcohol+EsterAlcohol+ NEW Reactive Species Heat
Biodiesel Roadmap OilMethanol+ Biodiesel!Glycerol+ Reactive Species Fat What do we start with? Heat
- + Sodium methoxide salt H2OH2O CH 3 OH NaOH CH 3 O-O- Na + H2OH2O + + Sodium Hydroxide MethanolWater Step 1 Create the “reactive species” Don’t need to memorize this!
- + Soduim methoxide salt Step 3: Active species regenerated H2OH2O CH 3 OH NaOH CH 3 O-O- Na + H2OH2O + +
Biodiesel Roadmap OilMethanol+ Biodiesel!Glycerol+ Reactive Species Fat Heat
COH CO OCH H H H C O C O C O + CH 3 O - Na + heat Step 2! Making Biodiesel Oil Fat Reactive Species
COH CO OCH H H H C O C O C O + 2CH 3 O - Na + heat Step 2! Making Biodiesel Oil Fat Reactive Species
COH CO OCH H H H C O C O C O + 3CH 3 O - Na + heat Step 2! Making Biodiesel Oil Fat Reactive Species
Step 2! CH C O - Na + CH H H H O C + CH 3 O Making Biodiesel O - Na + 3
CH C CH H H H Step 3! Regenerate the reactive species!! + CH 3 OH heat Methanol O - Na + 3
CH C OHCH H H H + CH 3 O - Na + Step 3! Reactive Species OH 3 Glycerol!
Once for each fatty acid chain! Overall Reaction?
Triglyceride Alcohol HEAT COH CO OCH H H H C O C O C O CH 3 OH + CHO CH 2 O O H H H + C OCH 3 O 3 OH - Glycerol
Transesterification Forming one ester from another ester!!!
One of the first uses of transesterified vegetable oil (biodiesel) was powering heavy duty vehicles in South Africa before World War II. The name "biodiesel" has been given to transesterified vegetable oil to describe its use as a diesel fuel. It was patented in the US in the 1940s by Colgate (and other) scientists. The 1940s researchers were looking for a method to produce glycerin more readily, in order to produce explosives for World War II. Many of the methods used today by producers and home brewers have their origin in the original 1940s research.