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Day 1 – Types of Solutions & Water and its Properties.

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Presentation on theme: "Day 1 – Types of Solutions & Water and its Properties."— Presentation transcript:

1 Day 1 – Types of Solutions & Water and its Properties

2 Mixtures! Mixture: physical blend of two or more substances (no rxn, just dumped) Homogeneous mixture: uniform composition (i) also called a solution (ii) its components are NOT readily distinguished Examples: Coca-Cola, HCl (aq), salt water

3 Heterogeneous mixture: not uniform in composition (can pick them apart easily) its components are readily distinguished (which means you CAN see them!). Examples: trail mix, sand, this class!

4 Types of Mixtures: Solutions A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase Solute – substance being dissolved (least amount) Solvent – medium DOING the dissolving (greater amount)

5 In a solution, the solvent and the solute do not need to be in the same phase. Any phase of matter can dissolve in any other phase of matter.

6 Water Molecule botimages.html

7 Universal Solvent Because of its polar nature, water can easily dissolve many substances and is commonly known as the “Universal Solvent”

8 The Solution Process Water molecules are in continuous motion. When a solute is added  the water molecules will collide with it. The polar nature of water molecules attract the solute particles and the particles will break away.

9 Negative side of water molecules will surround positive cations The Solution Process

10 Positive side of water molecules will surround negative anions The Solution Process

11 Dissolving polar molecular compounds

12 Density – ice floats in water! One of the few solids in which a solid will float in its own liquid. Hydrogen bonding causes water molecules to arrange in a honeycomb pattern which increases the volume of the ice and makes it less dense

13 If the solute does dissolve in the solvent, the solute is soluble. (aq) If it doesn’t dissolve it is insoluble. (s) Forms a precipitate

14 Solubility Rules Use STAAR chart to determine whether or not a compound is soluble (aq) or insoluble (s) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 MgCO3 NH4Cl NaOH Mg(OH)2 PbCrO4

15 Solubility Rules Use STAAR chart to determine whether or not a compound is soluble (aq) or insoluble (s) Na2CrO4 MgCrO4 CuCl2 MgF2 CuSO4 Hg2SO4

16 Predicting Products in a Double Replacement Reaction Na2SO4 + BaCl2  2 Cr(NO3)3 + 3 (NH4)2S  BaSO4 + 2NaCl 6(NH4)NO3 + Cr2S3 (s) (aq) (aq) (s) 3 KNO3 + FeCl3  Fe(NO3)3 + 3 KCl (aq) (aq) Since all reactants and products are soluble (aqueous), technically nothing happened. (No Reaction)


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