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Hydrogen Sulfide Safety Etech Environmental & Safety Solutions, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Hydrogen Sulfide Safety Etech Environmental & Safety Solutions, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hydrogen Sulfide Safety Etech Environmental & Safety Solutions, Inc.

2 Objectives  At the completion of this class, students will be able to: Recognize the potential for exposure and the characteristics of H 2 S Understand and describe the effects of H 2 S on humans and metals Identify the presence of H 2 S and understand the use of appropriate protective measures

3 Objectives …Continued Understand basic notification procedures Understand the basic use of detection equipment Understand basic rescue and safety measures Demonstrate the correct use of protective equipment Meet the certification requirements for H 2 S training

4 Physical Properties  Odor: Similar to rotten eggs Can be detected by smell at less than ¼ of 1 part per million No smell at high concentrations  Never  Never trust your sense of smell as the detection method for H 2 S

5 Source  H 2 S is caused by the decomposition of organic material (animal and/or vegetable)  Is found in: Natural Gas Produced Oil Sewers & swamps Other industrial processes

6 Chemical Formula  Is comprised of 2 parts hydrogen and 1 part sulfur  Simple compound  Hydrogen and sulfur will readily combine Hydrogen Atoms Sulfur Atom

7 Vapor Density  Colorless, heavier than air (VP = 17.6 atm) Will settle into low spots Easily dispersed by wind or air currents  Avoid  Avoid low-lying areas where H 2 S is present

8 Boiling Point  Will boil at –76 o f  Has to be below -76 o f to become a solid  Will likely be encountered as a gas

9 Explosive Limits  Has an explosive range of %  Explosive range for gasoline is 1.5 – 7.6%  Can dramatically increase the volatility of natural gas well away  Park your vehicle well away from any exhaust sources of H 2 S

10 PPM vs Percent  To convert parts per million (ppm) to percent, move the decimal 4 places to the left: 1 ppm =.0001% or 1/10,000 of 1% 10 ppm =.001% or 1/1,000 of 1% 100 ppm =.01% or 1/100 of 1% 500 ppm =.05% or 5/100 of 1% 1000 ppm =.10% or 1/10 of 1% 10,000 ppm =1%

11 Solubility  Is readily soluble in water  Can be found in water handling systems of separation processes  Will stay in solution if not treated Is mechanically treated via heat or agitation

12 Auto-Ignition  Will spontaneously ignite and burn at 500 o f Natural gas has a higher auto-ignition temperature  Do not smoke or use an open flame in the presence of H 2 S

13 Metals  Highly corrosive to certain metals  Causes hydrogen embrittlement (sulfide stress cracking)  Failure is often abrupt

14 When Burned  Produces a blue flame Gives off sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) –Is very toxic  Methane based natural gas produces a yellow to orange flame Neither methane gas or H 2 S will create smoke

15 Physiological Hazards  Toxicity Is more toxic than Carbon Monoxide Nearly as toxic has Hydrogen Cyanide

16 Physiological Hazards …Continued Typical Body Responses 0.13 ppmMinimal perceptible odor 4.60 ppmEasily detectable, moderate odor 10 ppmBeginning of eye irritation 27 ppmStrong, unpleasant odor 100 ppmCoughing, eye irritation, loss or sense of smell Source: ANSI

17 Physiological Hazards …Continued Typical Body Responses (Continued) ppmMarked conjunctivitis and respiratory tract irritation ppmLoss of consciousness & possible death ppmRapid unconsciousness, cessation of respiration, death 1000 – 2000 ppmUnconscious at once, death may occur even if the victim is removed to fresh air at once Source: ANSI

18 Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 )  By product when H 2 S is burned  Heavier than air  Colorless  Lethal at high concentrations  In the presence of moisture forms a mild sulphuric acid  Readily dispersed by wind & air currents

19 SO 2 Toxicity 3-30 ppmSlight respiratory irritation ppmAltered sense of smell & taste, increased fatigue ppmMaximum permissible exposure for ½ hour ppmIntolerable by humans, could lead to serious illness or death ppmImmediately dangerous to life and health Source: NIOSH

20 How H 2 S Affects Individuals  Routes of Exposure: Lungs Eyes (Irritant)  Target Organs: Brain Eyes Lungs

21 How H 2 S Affects Individuals  Other Factors: Duration (Length of exposure time) Intensity (Level of concentration) Individual Susceptibility (Each individual reacts differently to H 2 S exposure)

22 Symptoms of Exposure  Skin Irritation  Eye Irritation  Fatigue  Nausea  Headache  Loss of appetite  Dizziness  Irrational behavior  Dryness in nose, throat  Coughing  Loss of consciousness  Cessation of all life processes Symptoms may occur individually or in combination

23 Effects On Metal  Higher hardness steel is more prone to embrittlement  Causes stress fractures  Causes Crystallization  Is prone to acid gas corrosion  May form iron sulfide

24 Detection  Colormetric Tubes React with H 2 S to change color in the tube media  Direct Reading Instruments Personal Area Remote Never Never trust your sense of smell for the detection of H 2 S!!!

25 Reporting  Report any known presence or suspicions of H 2 S presence to your supervisor immediately

26 Rescue  Never effect a rescue before first donning proper respiratory protection and calling for assistance  Move the victim to a side wind area safely away from the source  Administer first aid as needed Beware that higher concentrations may be in the victim lungs

27 Basic H 2 S Safety Rules  Evacuate if levels of 10 ppm or greater are detected  Use respiratory protection in areas greater than 10 ppm This level may be greater if dictated by local authority or your Company’s policy daily  If you work in an H 2 S area, make sure respiratory protection is available, check it daily  Do not depend upon your sense of smell to detect H 2 S

28 Basic H 2 S Safety Rules …Continued  Always use the “Buddy” system when working in H 2 S environments  Do not attempt rescue unless you have been properly trained, have first called for assistance and have donned proper respiratory protection cross-wind  Move cross-wind when exiting an H 2 S release  Get victim to medical attention immediately

29 Basic H 2 S Safety Rules …Continued out  Park your vehicle headed “ out ” daily  Check your protective equipment daily  Keep protective equipment in good operating condition immediately  Report any leaks or suspicions of H 2 S presence to your supervisor immediately

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