Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents Chapter Preview 15.1 How the Nervous System Works"— Presentation transcript:
1Table of Contents Chapter Preview 15.1 How the Nervous System Works 15.2 Divisions of the Nervous System15.3 Sight and Hearing15.4 Smell, Taste, and Touch15.5 Alcohol and Other Drugs
2Chapter 15 Preview Questions 1. Which part of the skeletal system protects the brain?a. spineb. pelvisc. skulld. joint
3Chapter 15 Preview Questions 1. Which part of the skeletal system protects the brain?a. spineb. pelvisc. skulld. joint
4Chapter 15 Preview Questions 2. Which muscles can you control voluntarily?a. heart musclesb. leg musclesc. diaphragmd. stomach muscles
5Chapter 15 Preview Questions 2. Which muscles can you control voluntarily?a. heart musclesb. leg musclesc. diaphragmd. stomach muscles
6Chapter 15 Preview Questions 3. What is the smallest unit of any body system?a. structureb. organc. tissued. cell
7Chapter 15 Preview Questions 3. What is the smallest unit of any body system?a. structureb. organc. tissued. cell
8Chapter 15 Preview Questions 4. What is the eye designed to receive from the environment?a. light raysb. vibrationsc. lensesd. motion
9Chapter 15 Preview Questions 4. What is the eye designed to receive from the environment?a. light raysb. vibrationsc. lensesd. motion
10How do organs and other structures enable the nervous system to function? You smell a delicious aroma. You walk into the kitchen and see a bag of popcorn in the microwave. You hear some kernels still popping. Then you think to yourself, “Snack time!” Which body systems enabled you to smell, walk, see, hear, and think? How did each system play a part in your response?
11Section 15.1: How the Nervous System Works What are the functions of the nervous system?What is the structure of a neuron and what kinds of neurons are found in the body?How do nerve impulses travel from one neuron to another?
12 Jobs of the nervous system: The nervous system receives information (Stimulus) about what is happening both inside and outside our bodies.It directs how we react to our environment (Response)3. It maintains homeostasis.
13Kinds of NeuronsSensory Neurons: carries messages from receptors to the interneuron within the brain or spinal cord. Interneurons: connect sensory and motor neurons. (brain and spinal chord) Motor Neurons: sends impulses to muscles.
14The Structure of a Neuron: Cell body= with a nucleusDendrite = an extension that carries messages to the cell body.Axon = carries messages away from the cell body.
15How a Nerve Impulse Travels A nerve impulse must cross the gap between the axon and the next structure this is the synapseThe axon tips release chemicals that carrythe impulse acrossthe gap.
16Section 15.2: Divisions of the Nervous System What are the structures and functions of the central nervous system?What are the structures and functions of the peripheral nervous system?What is a reflex?What are two ways in which the nervous system can be injured?
17Divisions of the Nervous System The Central Nervous System:Control center of the body.Brain and Spinal CordThe Peripheral Nervous System:Branches out and connects to the CNSSomatic nerves control voluntary actionsAutonomic nerves control involuntary actionsThe Brain:100 billion neurons (all interneurons)3 main regionsCerebrum:largestTwo halvesThink/remember/speakThe senses2. Cerebellum:BalancePostureBrainstem/MedullaControls involuntary processesHeartbeat/blood pressureBreathing
18Divisions of the Nervous System The Central Nervous System: Control center of the body. Brain and Spinal Cord The Peripheral Nervous System: Branches out and connects to the CNS Somatic nerves control voluntary actions Autonomic nerves control involuntary actions
19Central Nervous System The central nervous system is the control center of the body. It includes the brain and spinal cord.
20Peripheral Nervous System Branches out and connects to the CNSSomatic nerves control voluntary actionsAutonomic nerves control involuntary actions
21The Brain There are three main regions of the brain 1. Cerebrum: largestTwo halvesThink/remember/speakThe senses2. Cerebellum:BalancePosture3. Brainstem/MedullaControls involuntary processesHeartbeat/blood pressureBreathing
22ReflexesA reflex is an automatic response that occurs very rapidly and without conscious control.
23ReflexesA reflex is an automatic response that occurs very rapidly and without conscious control.
24Section 15.3: Sight and Hearing How do your eyes enable you to see?How do you hear and maintain your sense of balance?
25VisionYou eyes respond to the stimulus of light. They convert that stimulus into impulses that your brain interprets, enabling you to see.
26VisionLight coming from an object enters your eye and is focused by the lens.The light produces an upside-down image on your retina.Receptors in your retina then send impulses to your cerebrum, which turns the image right-side up.
27Hearing and BalanceYour ears are the sense organs that respond to the stimulus of sound. Ears convert the sound to nerve impulses that your brain interprets.
28Sound IntensitySound intensity, or loudness, is measured in units called decibels. The threshold of hearing for the human ear is 0 decibels. For every 10-decibel increase, the sound intensity increases ten times. Thus, a 20-decibel sound is ten times more intense than a 10-decibel sound. A 30-decibel sound is 100 times more intense than a 10-decibel sound. Sound levels for several sound sources are shown in the bar graph.
29Sound Intensity Reading Graphs: What unit of measure is represented on the y-axis? What is represented on the x-axis?Decibels, or sound level; type of sound
30Section 15.4: Smell, Taste, and Touch What are the functions of the nervous system?What is the structure of a neuron and what kinds of neurons are found in the body?How do nerve impulses travel from one neuron to another?.
31TouchTouch receptors are the nerve cells that tell your brain about tactile sensations. There are two groups (1) mechanoreceptors that tell you about sensations of pushing, pulling or movement, (2) thermoreceptors that tell you about sensations of temperature.
33Smell and Taste The senses of smell and taste work closely together. Both depend on chemicals in food or in the air.The chemicals trigger responses in receptors in the nose and mouth.
34Section 5: Alcohol and Other Drugs What are the functions of the nervous system?What is the structure of a neuron and what kinds of neurons are found in the body?How do nerve impulses travel from one neuron to another?
35Illegal (Controlled) Drugs MarijuanaCocaineMethamphetamineHallucinogensControlled is a much better way to think of these drugs than illegal. Many of these drugs are available legally by prescription and all of these drugs can benefit people used in appropriate dosages in appropriate situations. All of them can also cause significant harm to people if used in excessive dosages in inappropriate circumstances. All of these drugs have caused Army personnel problems in the past. Currently the drugs that are causing the Army in Hawaii the most trouble (in addition to alcohol & tobacco) are meth (especially ice), cocaine, marijuana, and LSD.NarcoticsDepressantsSteroidsInhalants
36Tobacco Second Hand Smoke Kills More than all Other Drugs Combined! 430,000 + Every Year!Second Hand SmokeCancer, Heart AttacksSmokers’ Face/Breath/TeethNo Safe Way To UseHard to overstress the dangers of this drug. It kills 300,000 more people every year in this country than the second place drug (alcohol) and more than twice as many as all the other drugs combined.Important to emphasize that smokeless tobacco is just as dangerous as regular tobacco. Chewing and dipping may not give you lung cancer but the cancer of the mouth, lip, tongue, etc., will definitely spoil your day.About 7,000 people a year will die of lung cancer who don’t smoke but who live or work with someone who does.
37AlcoholAlcohol is a drug found in many beverages, including beer, wine, cocktails, and hard liquor. Alcohol is a powerful depressant and affects every system of the body.
38Alcohol Health Risk Fitness for Duty Accidents Drinking & Driving Violence / FamilyUnderage DrinkingSome soldiers think of Army Policy as being anti-drinking. It is not. It is anti-excessive drinking, anti-irresponsible drinking. Statistics show excessive use dramatically increases a solider’s chances of having a car crash, on-the-job accident, getting a dui (>.08 BAL)/dwi (>.05<.08 BAL), behaving violently, developing physical problems or addiction. There are a lot of factors which contribute to excessive drinking but only ONE is always present - the actual drinking of alcohol. You can not get a DUI/DWI without drinking. You can not be an Alcoholic without drinking.Excessive Drinking can Cause Problems with... Work,Family,Friends,Society, and SelfALCOHOL IS A DEPRESSANT-IT SLOWS THE ACTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
39Marijuana Strong Available 30 Million Users Reputation as a “safe” drug15 Times Stronger than ‘70sKeeps People from Achieving Their PotentialOften Laced w/ Other DrugsHooks into Fat CellsA big problem here is we lost credibility in the 50s and 60s when mj was a relatively harmless drug and we were saying it was very dangerous. Today in the 90s mj is much stronger, more dangerous, and users see it as a “safe” drug and they turn a deaf ear when we talk about the increasing negative consequences connected with mj. Here in Hawaii the AG estimated that mj was a 10 billion dollar a year business.
40Cocaine & Methamphetamine IncreasesHeart RateBlood PressureActivityInsomnia,Euphoria followed by DepressionNeural Disruption“Wired”, AddictionCocaine and Methamphetamine share about 90% of the same symptoms, both being intensive illegal stimulants. The body gears up for “fight or flight” and the brain gets “up”, users often experiencing feelings of euphoria. The trouble is both the body and the brain have to pay for this up. The body “crashes” and energy turns into fatigue. The mind goes from euphoria to depression, and the higher the “up” the more intense the depression. Both drugs affect neural transmitters and produce feelings of being “wired” because of their intensity.
41COCAINE vs. Methamphetamine Crack vs. ICE Coke=> Shorter, Bigger SurgeIce=> Voices & Bugs, Paranoia, ViolenceWhile cocaine produces a more intense “rush”, meth lasts longer. This may be the main reason why some people are using both drugs - in the past users preferred one over the other.While both drugs produce paranoia and tendencies to violence, meth, especially in the purer stronger form “ice”, seems to push the users further in this direction. While at high doses cocaine users may experience visual hallucinations, it is the ice users that “hear voices”. In addition to auditory hallucinations, tactile hallucinations are also common with meth users (e.g. scratching at non-existent bugs)
42Cocaine Highly Addicting Dealing & Stealing High Dying Potential Often in Up/Down Combos => w/ HeroinIf you want to get “up” , stimulants will do that for you. The trouble with today’s stimulants is that they get you too far up. This “up” makes you feel “wired”, edgy. It is so uncomfortable that users can’t wait until there’s a natural slow down (the drug leaving one’s system), they want to slow down immediately, which means taking a downer. An up & a down then engage in a tug-of-war internally causing major problems. A particular problem is the $ of the drug, $3,500-$4,000 a month for either a coke or meth addict. This means dealing or stealing, most commonly in the unit.
43Methamphetamine - “Ice” High Potential for Violence, Addiction, & DeathThe Drug of Choice in Hawaii2-3 Months Addiction TimeLosing One’s Mind & WillThe reason many call Hawaii the methamphetamine capital of the country is that a higher percentage of users here use the very pure, very dangerous form called “ice” (90%+) than any other state. Soldiers smoking ice for the first time will probably like it and want to use it again. The problem is when they use it again they will feel good but not as good as the first time => so they will take some more to recapture the feeling of the first high. Increasing the dosage this way (chasing the high) leads the average person to full-on addiction in 2-3 months.
45Ecstasy (Methamphetamine) vs. Herbal Ecstasy (Ephedrine) Ecstasy: Powerful Stimulant & HallucinogenEcstasy is methylenedioxymethylamphetamine -MDMA- a powerful form of meth that also has some properties of the hallucinogen, mescaline. Herbal Ecstasy is NOT meth but Ephedrine, another stimulant which used to be common over the counter. Although Herbal Ecstasy is not nearly as powerful as Ecstasy, many people are taking it in multiple doses to get high. Because of this ephedrine products are being tightly controlled in many states. Ephedrine is also the drug from which many dealers make meth.
46Hallucinogens Therapeutic Use Street Abuse Army Testing Begins in 1989 Users Easy to SpotEffects= Focus, Distortions, Nausea, Disorientation, Performance , Communications , Panic, TRAUMALike most drugs, hallucinogens when used appropriately can help people. In the 50s LSD, for example, was used effectively in therapy with cancer patients and alcoholics. When used recreationally in the streets at 8-10 times the prescribed dosage, “bad trips” triggered major trauma and problems for users. Because the dosage unit is so small (millionths of a gram) we couldn’t tested for hallucinogens for many years. In 1987 technology caught up with hallucinogens, and in 1989 the Army began hallucinogen testing. While it leaves the body rapidly, soldiers who are “tripping” are easy to spot and command-directed urinalysis very effective
47HallucinogensEffects: Focus X, Distortions, Nausea, Disorientation, Performance X, Communications X, Panic, TRAUMAAt low dosages, hallucinogens like LSD (the most popular hallucinogen in Hawaii) disrupt a lot of our normal neural functioning - e.g. it interferes with our ability to focus, it distorts our perceptions, it impairs our ability to function and it makes us very nauseous (chaotic messages to the digestive system). At high dosages it interferes with our ability to communicate and it starts stripping away meaning - e.g.. users no longer understand the nature and relationship of their environment. This renders them unable to function and creates extreme panic and trauma.
48Depressants 1950’s - Sleeping Pills 1960’s - Barbiturates (Seconal & Phenobarbital)The harder you have to work to get high from a drug, the less likely you are to abuse it. Once depressants became available in pill and capsule form their abuse skyrocketed. Sleeping Pills were much abused in the 50s so we turned to barbiturates which were supposed to be less addicting, less dangerous, and, in fact, were more so. Benzodiazepines which replaced barbs in the 70s were in fact less dangerous - like a 22 is less dangerous than a 45 - still strong enough to hurt you and even kill you. Ludes while still popular have all but disappeared. 90% of the street Ludes turn out to be valium in disguise.Slowed Down, Sleepy; Impaired Thinking, Coordination; MoodSwings, Stressed heart
49NARCOTICS The Naturals: Opium, Morphine, Heroin People often say they only do healthy, “natural” drugs. Natural or Artificial, a drug is a drug is a drug. The Natural narcotics are heroin etc.. while the synthetic or artificial narcotics are codeine etc. One can just as easily become addicted to or overdose from one as the other.The Synthetics: Percodan, Demerol, Codeine
50Inhalants The Hidden Addiction: Readily Available => Gas, Glue, Sprays, Paint, Polish, Cleaning Fluid, Medications, Poppers, White Out, Scented Pens....Some may think that inhalants is a kid’s addiction. The average age of abusers may be but the effects are definitely adult. Adults who gravitate to inhalants generally do so because they’re cheap, easy to get a hold of, and inconspicuous. Potential inhalants are all around us. Some (like cooking sprays, white out etc.) may or may not produce inhalant effects. If sniffing or huffing the substance makes you lightheaded, causes your heart to accelerate, and your face and body to flush, these are inhalant symptoms.
51InhalantsEffects: Feeling Light-Headed, Light-Sensitive, Sores, Nose Bleeds => Organ Damage, Bone Marrow, Increasing Dysfunction, Withdrawal, Addiction, OverdoseBecause this very noxious drug is inhaled through the nose this is where you get the first reactions: the skin around the nose turns red, later it dies and peals away, then mucous (snot) starts to regularly run down your nose, nose bleeds start, sores form around the nose & mouth, and this is just the cosmetic damage. Inside, this drug is tearing you up. This is the only drug of the top ten that we talk about, that will actually destroy cells in your bone marrow. In addition, it will produce full-on physiological and psychological addiction, and users can quickly develop tolerance.
52Inhalants Things to Remember: Very Short High, Very High Dosage Rate, High Addiction & Overdose PotentialAlthough we often are around inhalants like paint, gas and glue, it is the recreational user who is at risk here, the user who deep breathes the inhalant, holds it in for maximum effect and then continues to dose up to maintain their high. Since the inhalant high is so short (15-60 seconds), an abuser who wishes to stay high for four hours (what we call a party run) would have to “huff” 240 doses. This is why the potential for inhalant overdose and/or addiction is very high. As an example, think of drinking 240 beers in a four hour period! or 240 lines of cocaine!
53Anabolic Steroids Invented in 1935 – SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS SIMILAR TO HORMONESWidely Used & Promoted in the ‘50sDiscouraged UseNon-Athlete Use: 1990sDo not get these steroid mixed up with catabolic steroids which are anti-inflamitories. Anabolic Steroids build muscle. An artificial form of testosterone, these steroids heighten protein production which in turn produces more muscle, so users (who are active) build muscles at a greatly accelerated rate (20X faster than is natural for the body). While use of these drugs is highly discouraged, use among athletes remain high (an estimated 35% of international athletes take them) In this society winning is everything so steroids are attractive. Also non-athlete use has been rising because being “cut” is seen as attractive.
54Anabolic Steroids Effects= Building Muscle Mass stronger and faster. Puffy Face, Acne, Jaundice,Organ Damage,ROID RAGE“Long Term use = Death” Excess Use Causes Too Many Changes, Too Fast For The Body to HandleWhile the cosmetic changes anabolic steroids bring are not pleasant, zits, sickly yellowish skin etc.., they are minor compared to the major organ damage being incurred - the liver, the pancreas, the heart etc..The most visible symptom of steroid abuse is psychological: Roid Rage, anger which is often uncontrollable, on a short trigger, exploding into VIOLENCE. In a study in the late ‘80s, 90% of steroid abusers had a documented violent incident.While steroid abusers seldom overdose, “long term death” is quick; average profile - start abusing steroids at 18, die at 32.
55Drug AbuseDrug abuse can have serious consequences. However, there are ways to tell if someone is abusing drugs and ways to help that person.