Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14:Politics and Economy in Global Perspective."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 14:Politics and Economy in Global Perspective
Objectives (slide 1 of 3) 14.1 Political Systems, Power, and Authority Distinguish political sociology from political science. Describe the major types of authority. 14.2 Governments Around the Globe Identify the four basic types of government and characteristics of each. Discuss some of the ways in which political authority is transferred. 14.3 The US Political System Compare and contrast the US political system with other democracies.
Objectives (slide 2 of 3) 14.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Power and Political Systems Illustrate the functionalist and conflict perspectives on political power. 14.5 War and Peace Explain the causes, types, and costs of wars, as well as the ways warfare is evolving. Discuss the changing demographic composition of the US armed forces. Discuss ways the United States has tried to deter attack as well as seek diplomatic resolutions. 14.6 Economy and Economic Systems in Transition Identify and describe historically different economies and the nature of work within each.
Objectives (slide 3 of 3) 14.7 Global Economic Systems Compare and contrast the key characteristics, common differences, and historical trends of capitalism and socialism. 14.8 Theoretical Perspectives on Economy and Work Illustrate the functional, conflict, and symbolic interactionist perspectives as they apply to the economy and work. 14.9 Postindustrial US Economy and Work Describe the changes in economics and work demographics in the postindustrial era in the United States.
Political Systems, Power, and Authority (slide 1 of 2) State: The political entity having a monopoly over the use of force in a specific geographic territory Government: The formal organization that acts on behalf of the state to regulate interactions with other states and among citizens of the state Power: The ability to realize one’s goals and interests, even in the face of resistance
Political Systems, Power, and Authority (slide 2 of 2) Coercion: Occurs when one person or group forces its will on another, based on the threat of physical force or violence Influence: The exercise of power through the process of persuasion Authority: Power that has been institutionalized and is recognized as legitimate by the people over whom it is exercised
Types of Authority Traditional authority: Power conferred by custom and accepted practice Legal-rational authority: Power derived from written rules and regulations of political systems Charismatic authority: Power made legitimate by a leader’s exceptional personal characteristics and emotional appeal to his or her followers
Monarchy Monarchy: A government ruled by a family in which the right to rule is passed from one generation to the next by inheritance City-states: Small centers of power restricted to cities in which a monarch ruled the city surrounding a castle Nation-states: Political entities extending throughout a relatively large geographic region Absolute monarchs: Claim a monopoly on power in a country based on divine right Constitutional monarchies: Members of royalty serve as symbolic rulers while elected officials actually govern those countries
Democracy Democracy: A form of government in which the people governed have the opportunity to select those who govern and, in some cases, to participate directly in governance themselves Direct democracy: A democracy in which all members come together to make decisions Representative democracy: A democracy in which representatives of the people are elected to govern on their behalf Parliamentary systems: Representative democracies in which candidates for the national legislature (parliament) represent political parties Democratic republics: Examples of representative democracy; much like parliamentary systems except that they have popularly elected chief executives
Authoritarianism Authoritarian governments: Concentrate power in the hands of a strong leader, who often rules for life and may exercise absolute power Dictatorship: Rule by a single person Oligarchies: Authoritarian governments ruled by a select few Military junta: A group of military leaders who have seized power from the prior government
Totalitarianism Totalitarian government: An authoritarian government having complete control over all aspects of people’s lives—even aspects having little or nothing to do with politics
Revolutions, Coups d’Etat, and Transfers of Authority Coup d’état: The abrupt replacement of one government with another illegally, often relying upon coercive force or the threat of violence Political revolution: The replacement of one political system with another through violent means Nonviolent resistance: Political actions relying on nonviolent acts to protest particular policies or regimes Elections: Formal decision processes in which individuals are permitted to vote for their favorite option
The US Political System The US two-party system, winner-take-all elections, wedge issues, and efforts to get voters to the polls are just some of the many key factors influencing the outcome of elections. Political parties: Organizations whose major purpose is to gain legitimate control of the government
Elections Winner-take-all elections: Those in which the party receiving the most votes in each district wins the whole district Proportional representation: A system in which seats in a legislature are divided among parties in proportion to the number of popular votes received by each party
Voter Participation Voting rates in the United States are lower now than they have been during many other periods in history. During the period between 1874 and 1892, an average of 79% of all eligible citizens voted in US presidential elections, although many groups denied voting rights at that time were impoverished (i.e. blacks and immigrants). The voting rate dropped dramatically after 1900, reaching a rate of 43% in 1920. Between 1945 and 2010, voting rates have ranged between 50% and 65%.
Candidate Preference Gender gap: A tendency for women and men to have different political preferences on many issues
Opinion Polls, Wedge Issues, and Campaign Strategy Wedge issues: Issues about which people have strong opinions and the position of their party receives greater public support than the other party
Lobbyists and Special-Interest Groups Interest groups: Voluntary associations of citizens who attempt to influence public policy Lobbyist: Someone who represents an interest group and meets with public officials to try to influence their decisions by providing information supporting the interest group’s goals Political action committees (PACs): Interest groups that are formed to campaign for or against political candidates, legislation, and ballot initiatives
Global Comparisons with Other Democratic Systems Government gridlock: An inability to resolve important issues when neither party has sufficient votes to determine government policy
Functionalist Perspectives: Pluralist (Government by the People) Model Pluralist models: Argues that many groups within a community or country have access to government officials and compete with one another in an effort to influence policy decisions Veto groups: Interest groups that have the capacity to prevent the exercise of power by others
Conflict Perspectives: Elite (Government by the Few) Model Power rests with the “power elite” both inside and outside government. No one can be truly powerful unless he or she has access to major institutions.
Causes of War War: Organized conflict between nations Five circumstances that increase the likelihood of war: 1. A perceived threat 2. Moral objectives 3. Political objectives 4. Social problems 5. Absence of alternatives
Types of War Asymmetric warfare: War between opponents with significantly different military power and, consequently, significantly different tactics Terrorism: The systematic threat or use of violence to achieve a political end; one form of asymmetric warfare Cyberwarfare: A form of information warfare using digital software and hardware to conduct sabotage and espionage Drone warfare: The use of remotely controlled airplanes to conduct surveillance and to kill suspected militants with laser-guided rockets and other armaments Military - industrial complex: The conjunction of interests of the combination of the federal government, the military, and the defense industry
Costs of War Military - industrial complex: The conjunction of interests of the combination of the federal government, the military, and the defense industry
Gender, Race, and Class in the Military The military is primarily made up of men. Women are excluded from one third of all Army jobs and experience more harassment. An all-volunteer force shifts the burden of warfare onto disadvantaged minorities and lower social classes.
Maintaining the Peace Deterrence and Defense Deterrence: Preventing war from occurring Diplomacy and Resolution
Economy and Economic Systems in Transition Hunting and Gathering Economies Cultures in which people hunted game and relied on readily available vegetation and water for subsistence Agricultural Economies Economies in which agricultural production was efficient, leading to a food surplus, permitting a much more complex division of labor and making it possible to settle permanently in one place Economy: Consists of the organizations and processes that produce and distribute goods and services.
Industrial Economies Industrial Revolution: A dramatic change in the nature of production in which manufacturing became a central economic activity Industrial societies have six important characteristics: 1.They rely on manufacturing and mass production. 2.New machines increase productivity. 3.New forms of energy replace human muscle power. 4.Work becomes centralized in factories. 5.Independent craftsmen are replaced by wage laborers. 6.Narrow specialization contributes one step in the production process.
Information Economies and Postindustrial Societies Information revolution: A change that began during the last half of the 20th century in which service jobs become more common than jobs in manufacturing or agriculture Information economy: An economy based on the product of skilled professionals, which is the information or knowledge they provide Postindustrial societies: Dominated by information, services, and high technology more than the production of goods
Economic Sectors Economic sectors: Large segments of the economy representing fundamentally different kinds of production – Primary sector: Agricultural production; the major resources are raw materials and the technology employed is labor intensive – Secondary sector: Manufacturing; its activity is the production of goods, the key resource is energy, and the technology employed is capital-intensive machine production – Tertiary sector: The service sector, including the entertainment industry, the food industry, the professions, etc.
Capitalism Capitalism: An economy based on private ownership of wealth, competition, profit, and noninterference by the government Market economy: An economy in which consumers are the key decision makers, the market drives the economy, and transactions are based on profit motive and competition
Types of Capitalism Competitive capitalism: The capitalism of Marx’s day in which no single capitalist or small group of capitalists could dominate a market Monopoly capitalism: Occurs when one or only a few capitalists control a sector of the economy State capitalism: Capitalism in which capitalistic enterprises exist side by side with state-owned production enterprises and the state regulates and manages the economy Corporate capitalism: Capitalism dominated by public corporations owned by many stockholders Managerial capitalism: Occurs when managers, through both their day-to- day involvement in the corporation and their ownership of large blocks of stock as part of their compensation, dominate the corporation Institutional capitalism: Capitalism in which large shares of corporations are owned by institutional investors such as pension, insurance, or trust funds
Socialism Socialist economies: Economic systems in which the means of production are collectively owned and the economy is regulated by the government Communism: As envisioned by Karl Marx, an extreme form of socialist economic and political system in which all members of the society are equal
Functionalist Perspective Multinational corporations (or transnational corporations): Commercial organizations whose operations span international boundaries, typically both producing and selling goods and services in multiple countries
Conflict Perspective Export jobs to low-wage countries: To move production from high-wage countries to low-wage countries, resulting in a net loss of jobs in high-wage countries and a net increase of jobs in low-wage countries Outsource: To discontinue production and contract with another company to supply those goods or services
Trade Restraints and Deep Integration Shallow integration: Occurs when most products are produced in a single country and then sold in that country and abroad Deep integration: Most large corporations are multinationals that both produce and sell their products and services around the world
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Emphasizes the ways in which people find or create meaning from their work and the social significance of work, including: – Work and identity – Alienation and Job Satisfaction Alienation from work: The breakdown of the natural connections people have with their work and with other people through their work – Renegotiating the work contract
Transition from Agricultural Work to Factory Work to Service Work Occupational structure: In the United States, refers to the number and types of jobs available; experienced major shifts during the 20th century Blue-collar jobs: Manual labor occupations often having relatively low status, such as machinist, assembly-line worker, truck driver, or auto mechanic
Labor Unions Labor unions: Groups of workers who unite to engage in collective bargaining with owners Strikes: Temporary work stoppages by a group of workers to seek changes in working conditions Work to rule: The slowdown of work by meticulously following all regulations and doing only the minimum work legally required Lockout: An action in which the company is locked up and workers are not permitted to work or draw pay until the conflict is resolved
Deindustrialization Deindustrialization: The systematic withdrawal of private investment from manufacturing and the decline of industry through plant shutdowns, layoffs, and downsizing Downsizing: Reducing the size of companies to cut costs by laying off workers or even selling parts of the company. Telecommuting: Occurs when workers work from their homes and communicate with their workplace through communications technologies, such as Skype, interactive voice, video, and data conferencing
Dual Labor Market and Workforce Diversity Dual labor market: A relatively advantaged primary form of employment and a relatively disadvantaged secondary form of employment Primary labor market: Enjoys relatively good working conditions, reasonably high pay, opportunity for advancement, and—most important—job security Secondary labor market: Employees routinely experience high turnover, low job security, few or no benefits, low wages, and little opportunity for advancement
Professions Profession: A high-status occupation based on abstract knowledge enjoying considerable autonomy and authority and, in turn, serving the public good and regulating its members Key features: 1.Abstract knowledge 2.Autonomy 3.Self-regulation 4.Authority 5.Altruism Professionalization: A process of defining a type of work as a profession
The Rationalization of Work (slide 1 of 2) Rationalization: A process in which traditional methods and standards of social organization based on tradition, belief, and even magic are replaced with new methods and standards of social organization based on objectively calculable scientific criteria Scientific management (Taylorism): Applies scientific and engineering principles to human labor by breaking a complex task into simple components and using time-and-motion studies to specify every detail of the job to maximize efficiency Mass production: A process of production in which products are standardized, parts are interchangeable, precision tools fit parts together precisely, and the production is mechanized to produce a continuous high volume Assembly line: A mode of production in which a complex task is broken into individual tasks, with each worker performing only one or a few of the tasks repeatedly
The Rationalization of Work (slide 2 of 2) Technology: Consists of the knowledge, tools, and machines used to produce artifacts or manipulate the environment Deskilling: A reduction in expertise, training, and experience required to perform a job
Bureaucracy Bureaucracy: The primary design principle of modern formal organizations; based on a hierarchical structure of authority, codified rules and regulations, and principles of fairness and efficiency
Entrepreneurship, Self-Employment, and Venture Capitalism Entrepreneur: A person who takes an innovative idea and, through financing and business savvy, turns it into a viable business Private equity: Investors contribute funds in exchange for a share of ownership or equity in a company Angel investors: Affluent individuals who provide initial capital for a business startup, usually in return for a share of ownership Venture capital: Companies in business to loan money to high-risk, high-potential, early-stage growth startup companies Crowdfunding: A process whereby entrepreneurs post their idea and proposal on a website asking people to contribute small amounts either to purchase a product in advance or to gain equity in the business
Unemployment and Underemployment Unemployment rate: In the United States, the percentage of unemployed workers in the labor force actively seeking jobs Underemployed: People working at part-time jobs or self- employed and working less than desired because they cannot get a full-time job Seasonal unemployment: Unemployment due to seasonal variations, such as school teachers on summer vacation, or variations in weather, which often affect agriculture, construction, and tourism jobs Cyclical unemployment: Unemployment resulting from lower production rates during recessions Structural unemployment: Unemployment that results when the skill set of unemployed workers does not match the skills required for available jobs or when the unemployed are in a different location than available jobs
Underground and Informal Economies Underground economy: All economic transactions involving income that is not reported to the government as required by law Informal economy: Unpaid labor, such as doing housework, repairing one’s own car, or performing voluntary charity work
Corporations and the Economy Corporation: A legal entity separate from its owners Monopoly: Occurs when a single firm dominates an industry Oligopoly: Occurs when a few firms dominate an industry