Presentation on theme: "The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: Overview, Refresher, and Update"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: Overview, Refresher, and Update Sponsored by the Santa Clara County Psychological AssociationBobbi Emel, MFTPresented by(Bobbi’s type)
2 The MBTI® Instrument was developed by Katharine C. Briggs and her daughterIsabel Briggs Myersbased on the work of Swiss psychologist C. G. Jung, who presented his psychological type theory in his book Psychological Types (published 1921, translated into English 1923).
3 Jung’s Theory Jung believed that preferences are innate— “inborn predispositions.”He also recognized that our innate preferencesinteract with and are shaped by environmentalinfluences:FamilyCountryEducationand many others
4 About the MBTI® Instrument An indicator—not a testLooks only at normal behaviorForced-choice questionsTakes about 20–40 minutes to completeNo right or wrong answers—answer as you see fitYour results are confidential
5 About the MBTI® Instrument (cont.) There are no good or bad types—all types have some natural strengths and some possible pitfalls or blind spots.The instrument gives practical results you can use:In teamworkIn communicationIn decision making
6 Jung’s TheoryWe will look at four pairs of opposites—like our right and left hands. We all use both sides of each pair, but one is our natural preference.Jung believed that our preferences do not change—they stay the same over our lifetime.What changes is how we use our preferences and often the accuracy with which we can measure the preferences.The confounding variable—environment!
8 Extraversion or Introversion The direction in which we focus our attention and energySource: I. B. Myers, Introduction to Type®, 6th ed. (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 1998), p. 9.
9 We all use both preferences, but usually E–IPeople who prefer Extraversion:Focus their energy and attention outwardAre interested in the world of people and thingsDraw energy from being around peoplePeople who prefer Introversion:Focus their energy and attention inwardAre interested in the inner world of thoughts and reflectionsDraw energy from being aloneWe all use both preferences, but usuallynot with equal comfort.
10 People Who Prefer Extraversion Are attracted to the outer world of people and eventsAre aware of who and what is around themEnjoy meeting and talking with new peopleAre friendly, often verbally skilled, and easy to knowTend to speak out easily and often at meetingsMay not be as aware of what is going on inside themselves
11 People Who Prefer Introversion Are attracted to the inner world of thoughts, feelings, and reflectionsAre usually very aware of their inner reactionsPrefer to interact with people they knowAre often quiet in meetings and seem uninvolvedAre often reserved and harder to get to knowMay not be as aware of the outer world around them
12 People Who Prefer Extraversion Do their thinking as they speakMay act and/or speak first, then (possibly) thinkTell you about themselves, speaking rapidlyGive breadth to lifeCan get bored and restless if they’re alone too longCan seem shallow and intruding to IntrovertsNeed Introversion for balance
13 People Who Prefer Introversion Need time to gather their thoughts before speakingReflect and think before (possibly) actingWant to know you before self-disclosingBecome drained and tired interacting with people (particularly strangers)Give depth to lifeCan seem withdrawn and secretive to ExtravertsNeed Extraversion for balance
14 Extraversion or Introversion Source: N. J. Barger & L. K. Kirby, Introduction to Type® and Change (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 2004), p. 4.
15 Some Key Words Associated with ExtraversionActionOutwardPeopleInteractionManyExpressiveDo-Think-DoIntroversionReflectionInwardPrivacyConcentrationFewQuietThink-Do-Think
16 Sensing or IntuitionThe way we take in information and the kind of information we like and trustSource: I. B. Myers, Introduction to Type®, 6th ed. (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 1998), p. 9.
17 S–N People who prefer Sensing: Prefer to take in information using their five senses— sight, sound, smell, touch, and tastePeople who prefer Intuition:Go beyond what is real or concrete and focus on meaning, associations, and relationshipsWe all use both ways of perceiving, but we typically prefer and trust one more.
18 People Who Prefer Sensing See and collect facts and detailsAre practical and realisticStart at the beginning and take one step at a timeAre specific and literal when speaking, writing, and listeningLive in the present, dealing with the here and nowPrefer reality to fantasy
19 People Who Prefer Intuition See patterns, possibilities, connections, and meanings in informationAre conceptual and abstractStart anywhere and may leap over basic stepsSpeak and write in general, metaphorical termsLive in the future—the possibilitiesPrefer imagination and ingenuity to reality
20 People Who Prefer Sensing Like to work with the parts to see the overall designLike set procedures, established routinesPrefer practical, concrete problems and dislike theoretical or abstract problemsCan seem materialistic and too literal to Intuitive typesNeed Intuition for balance
21 People Who Prefer Intuition Study the overall design to see how the parts fitThrive on change, new ideas, and varietyPrefer imaginative new solutions to problems and become impatient with detailsCan seem impractical dreamers to Sensing typesNeed Sensing for balance
22 Sensing or IntuitionSource: N. J. Barger & L. K. Kirby, Introduction to Type® and Change (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 2004), p. 4.
23 Some Key Words Associated with SensingFactsRealisticSpecificPresentKeepPracticalWhat isIntuitionIdeasImaginativeGeneralFutureChangeTheoreticalWhat could be
24 The way we make decisions Thinking or FeelingThe way we make decisionsSource: I. B. Myers, Introduction to Type®, 6th ed. (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 1998), p. 10.
25 T–F People who prefer Thinking: Make their decisions based on impersonal, objective logicPeople who prefer Feeling:Make their decisions with a person-centered, values-based processBoth processes are rational and we use both often, but usually not equally easily.
26 People Who Prefer Thinking Use logic to analyze the problem, assess pros and consFocus on the facts and the principlesAre good at analyzing a situationFocus on problems and tasks—not relationshipsMay not include the impacts on people or people’s emotions in their decision making
27 People Who Prefer Feeling Use their personal values to understand the situationFocus on the values of the group or organizationAre good at understanding people and their viewpointsConcentrate on relationships and harmonyMay overlook logical consequences of individual decisions
28 People Who Prefer Thinking Take a long-term view, seeing things as an onlookerAre good at spotting flaws and inconsistencies and stating them clearlyWhen required, can reprimand or fire peopleBelieve fairness, justice, and equitability are very importantMay seem cold and detached to Feeling typesNeed Feeling for balance
29 People Who Prefer Feeling Take an immediate and personal view of situationsLike to show appreciation and caring for othersHave difficulty telling people unpleasant thingsBelieve fairness means treating each individual as a whole personMay seem overly emotional and irrational to Thinking typesNeed Thinking for balance
30 Thinking or FeelingSource: N. J. Barger & L. K. Kirby, Introduction to Type® and Change (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 2004), p. 4.
31 Some Key Words Associated with ThinkingHeadDistantThingsObjectiveCritiqueAnalyzeFirm but fairFeelingHeartPersonalPeopleSubjectivePraiseUnderstandMerciful
32 Judging or PerceivingOur attitude toward the external world and how we orient ourselves to itSource: I. B. Myers, Introduction to Type®, 6th ed. (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 1998), p. 10.
33 We all use both attitudes, but usually not with equal comfort. J–PPeople who prefer Judging:Want the external world to be organized and orderlyLook at the world and see decisions that need to be madePeople who prefer Perceiving:Seek to experience the world, not organize itLook at the world and see options that need to be exploredWe all use both attitudes, but usually not with equal comfort.
34 People Who Prefer Judging Like to make plans and follow themLike to get things settled and finishedLike environments with structure and clear limitsEnjoy being decisive and organizing othersHandle deadlines and time limits comfortablyPlan ahead to avoid last-minute rushes
35 People Who Prefer Perceiving Like to respond resourcefully to changing situationsLike to leave things open, gather more informationLike environments that are flexible; dislike rules and limitsMay not like making decisions, even when pressedTend to think there is plenty of time to do thingsOften have to rush to complete things at the last minute
36 People Who Prefer Judging Like rapidly getting to the bottom line and decidingDislike being interrupted on a project, even for a more urgent oneMay make decisions too quickly, or cling to a planMay not notice new things that need to be doneMay seem rigid, demanding and inflexible to Perceiving typesNeed Perceiving for balance
37 People Who Prefer Perceiving Want to explore all the options before decidingMay start too many projects and have difficulty finishing themMay have trouble making decisions, or have no planMay spontaneously change plansMay seem disorganized and irresponsible to Judging typesNeed Judging for balance
38 Judging or PerceivingSource: N. J. Barger & L. K. Kirby, Introduction to Type® and Change (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 2004), p. 4.
39 Some Key Words Associated with JudgingOrganizedDecisionControlNowClosureDeliberatePlanPerceivingFlexibleInformationExperienceLaterOptionsSpontaneousWait
40 The Type Table ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP 11.6%ISFJ13.8%INFJ1.5%INTJ2.1%ISTP5.4%ISFP8.8%INFP4.4%INTP3.3%ESTP4.3%ESFP8.5%ENFP8.1%ENTP3.2%ESTJ8.7%ESFJ12.3%ENFJ2.5%ENTJ1.8%ISTJISFJINFJINTJISTPISFPINFPINTPESTPESFPENFPENTPESTJESFJENFJENTJ
42 Understanding the 16 Types ISTJISFJINFJINTJISTPISFPINFPINTPESTPESFPENFPENTPESTJESFJENFJENTJNTs: “Possibilities for systems”“I can develop strategies for making the system work better.”NFs: “Possibilities for people”“I see interesting potential for people’s development and growth.”STs: The “bottom-line” people.“Who, what, where, when, why, just tell me what I need to know.”SFs: The “customer service” people“Who, what, when, where, why, how can I help everyone?”Not necessarily E + S + F + P = Type
43 Understanding the 16 Types ISTJISFJISTPISFPINFJINTJINFPINTPISs: “Thoughtful realists”Careful, dependable, preserve what is right and what is working.ENs: “Action-oriented innovators”Brainstorm ideas, make connections, see new ways.ESTPESFPESTJESFJENFPENTPENFJENTJESs: “Action-oriented realists”Readily take action to make things happen in the here and nowINs: “Thoughtful innovators”Think through the big picture, develop complex understandings.
44 Type Dynamics Value added: Dynamics . . . 1. Identifies and describes the dominant function – the core of the personality2. Clarifies what we extravert – how others see us, our communication style3. Makes clear that every type has a part that is introverted – not seen
45 Type Dynamics Dominant – our favorite, most used function Auxiliary – our second favorite functionTertiary - not in our typeInferior - not in our type, the function we are least comfortable using
46 I J E N F P T S Type Dynamics Dominant Auxiliary Tertiary Inferior I E
47 Type Dynamics Essential things to know: What this means: Extraverts extravert their dominant function and introvert their auxiliary functionIntroverts introvert their dominant function and extravert their auxiliary functionWhat this means:With extraverts – what you see is what you get!With introverts – what you see is not their most preferred function.
48 Type Dynamics General = Dominant function Aide = Auxiliary function Extraverts: General is out front, Aide is helpingIntroverts: General is in the tent, Aide is out front
49 Type Dynamics Being “In the Grip” Moderate stress: Tendency to exaggerate the dominant functionExtreme stress: May cause an eruption of the inferior function
50 Development of type dynamics through the lifespan “The focus of the first half of life is on directing energy into the dominant and auxiliary functions, developing self-knowledge and competent ways to be in the world and in relationships.Midlife brings confusions and opportunities. The way one has always been becomes less satisfying and identity itself is questioned.Finally comes increased access to previously unacknowledged parts of the self, associated with the tertiary and inferior functions – the possibility of integration, wholeness, individuation.“Briggs Myers, I. (1985). Introduction to Type, p. 35
52 MBTI Forms Form M - Profile Form M - Complete Reported type 2 pagesReported typeClarity of reported preferencesType descriptionForm M - Complete5 pagesProfile informationMore extensive type description: descriptors, characteristics of type, type with others, type at work, potential blind spots for type
53 MBTI Forms Form M Interpretive Report 5 pages Similar to the Form M Complete, except has more detail about type descriptionInformation about type dynamics
54 MBTI Forms Form Q Step II Explores 20 facets – 5 for each preference – that gives more information about type. May answer questions like, “Why am I an introvert if I enjoy talking so much?”
55 Applications in clinical practice Increase clinician’s information regarding:Behavior in the therapeutic settingWhich preferences may be underdevelopedClient behaviors when “In the Grip”How to help clients become more comfortable with their preferencesYour own preferences and how they inform your therapeutic style
56 Other applications Relationships Parenting Understand and respect differencesRecognize differing styles of focus of attention, where energy is drawn, how information is taken in, how decisions are made, and relationships to the outside worldParentingBecome more aware of child’s own emerging preferencesRecognize that parent’s type may be different than child’s and guards against assumption that what works for the parent will work for the child
57 Other applications Learning styles Problem-solving May help clients understand how they best take in information in a number of different settings: work, school, interests.Problem-solvingHelp clients learn which function they tend to use in problem-solving. May encourage growth of other, less-used functions.
58 Other applications Careers Business/teamwork May help clients narrow fields of interest to themBusiness/teamworkHandling:- Conflict- Change- Communication difficultiesIncrease teamwork
59 Accessing the MBTI forms and reports CPP, Inc.Formerly Consulting Psychologists PressSole publisher of the MBTIAccessing Materials