Presentation on theme: "The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: Overview, Refresher, and Update Sponsored by the Santa Clara County Psychological Association Bobbi Emel, MFT Presented."— Presentation transcript:
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: Overview, Refresher, and Update Sponsored by the Santa Clara County Psychological Association Bobbi Emel, MFT Presented by (Bobbi’s type)
The MBTI ® Instrument 2 was developed by Katharine C. Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers based on the work of Swiss psychologist C. G. Jung, who presented his psychological type theory in his book Psychological Types (published 1921, translated into English 1923).
Jung’s Theory 3 Jung believed that preferences are innate— “inborn predispositions.” He also recognized that our innate preferences interact with and are shaped by environmental influences: Family Country Education and many others
About the MBTI ® Instrument 4 An indicator—not a test Looks only at normal behavior Forced-choice questions Takes about 20–40 minutes to complete No right or wrong answers—answer as you see fit Your results are confidential
About the MBTI ® Instrument (cont.) 5 There are no good or bad types—all types have some natural strengths and some possible pitfalls or blind spots. The instrument gives practical results you can use: In teamwork In communication In decision making
Jung’s Theory 6 We will look at four pairs of opposites—like our right and left hands. We all use both sides of each pair, but one is our natural preference. Jung believed that our preferences do not change—they stay the same over our lifetime. What changes is how we use our preferences and often the accuracy with which we can measure the preferences. The confounding variable—environment!
Jungian Theory 7
Extraversion or Introversion 8 The direction in which we focus our attention and energy Source: I. B. Myers, Introduction to Type ®, 6 th ed. (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 1998), p. 9.
E–I 9 People who prefer Extraversion: Focus their energy and attention outward Are interested in the world of people and things Draw energy from being around people People who prefer Introversion: Focus their energy and attention inward Are interested in the inner world of thoughts and reflections Draw energy from being alone We all use both preferences, but usually not with equal comfort.
People Who Prefer Extraversion 10 Are attracted to the outer world of people and events Are aware of who and what is around them Enjoy meeting and talking with new people Are friendly, often verbally skilled, and easy to know Tend to speak out easily and often at meetings May not be as aware of what is going on inside themselves
People Who Prefer Introversion 11 Are attracted to the inner world of thoughts, feelings, and reflections Are usually very aware of their inner reactions Prefer to interact with people they know Are often quiet in meetings and seem uninvolved Are often reserved and harder to get to know May not be as aware of the outer world around them
People Who Prefer Extraversion 12 Do their thinking as they speak May act and/or speak first, then (possibly) think Tell you about themselves, speaking rapidly Give breadth to life Can get bored and restless if they’re alone too long Can seem shallow and intruding to Introverts Need Introversion for balance
People Who Prefer Introversion 13 Need time to gather their thoughts before speaking Reflect and think before (possibly) acting Want to know you before self-disclosing Become drained and tired interacting with people (particularly strangers) Give depth to life Can seem withdrawn and secretive to Extraverts Need Extraversion for balance
Extraversion or Introversion 14 Source: N. J. Barger & L. K. Kirby, Introduction to Type ® and Change (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 2004), p. 4.
Some Key Words Associated with 15 Extraversion Action Outward People Interaction Many Expressive Do-Think-Do Introversion Reflection Inward Privacy Concentration Few Quiet Think-Do-Think
Sensing or Intuition 16 The way we take in information and the kind of information we like and trust Source: I. B. Myers, Introduction to Type ®, 6 th ed. (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 1998), p. 9.
S–N 17 People who prefer Sensing: Prefer to take in information using their five senses— sight, sound, smell, touch, and taste People who prefer Intuition: Go beyond what is real or concrete and focus on meaning, associations, and relationships We all use both ways of perceiving, but we typically prefer and trust one more.
People Who Prefer Sensing 18 See and collect facts and details Are practical and realistic Start at the beginning and take one step at a time Are specific and literal when speaking, writing, and listening Live in the present, dealing with the here and now Prefer reality to fantasy
People Who Prefer Intuition 19 See patterns, possibilities, connections, and meanings in information Are conceptual and abstract Start anywhere and may leap over basic steps Speak and write in general, metaphorical terms Live in the future—the possibilities Prefer imagination and ingenuity to reality
People Who Prefer Sensing 20 Like to work with the parts to see the overall design Like set procedures, established routines Prefer practical, concrete problems and dislike theoretical or abstract problems Can seem materialistic and too literal to Intuitive types Need Intuition for balance
People Who Prefer Intuition 21 Study the overall design to see how the parts fit Thrive on change, new ideas, and variety Prefer imaginative new solutions to problems and become impatient with details Can seem impractical dreamers to Sensing types Need Sensing for balance
Sensing or Intuition 22 Source: N. J. Barger & L. K. Kirby, Introduction to Type ® and Change (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 2004), p. 4.
Some Key Words Associated with 23 Sensing Facts Realistic Specific Present Keep Practical What is Intuition Ideas Imaginative General Future Change Theoretical What could be
Thinking or Feeling 24 The way we make decisions Source: I. B. Myers, Introduction to Type ®, 6 th ed. (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 1998), p. 10.
T–F 25 People who prefer Thinking: Make their decisions based on impersonal, objective logic People who prefer Feeling: Make their decisions with a person-centered, values-based process Both processes are rational and we use both often, but usually not equally easily.
People Who Prefer Thinking 26 Use logic to analyze the problem, assess pros and cons Focus on the facts and the principles Are good at analyzing a situation Focus on problems and tasks—not relationships May not include the impacts on people or people’s emotions in their decision making
People Who Prefer Feeling 27 Use their personal values to understand the situation Focus on the values of the group or organization Are good at understanding people and their viewpoints Concentrate on relationships and harmony May overlook logical consequences of individual decisions
People Who Prefer Thinking 28 Take a long-term view, seeing things as an onlooker Are good at spotting flaws and inconsistencies and stating them clearly When required, can reprimand or fire people Believe fairness, justice, and equitability are very important May seem cold and detached to Feeling types Need Feeling for balance
People Who Prefer Feeling 29 Take an immediate and personal view of situations Like to show appreciation and caring for others Have difficulty telling people unpleasant things Believe fairness means treating each individual as a whole person May seem overly emotional and irrational to Thinking types Need Thinking for balance
Thinking or Feeling 30 Source: N. J. Barger & L. K. Kirby, Introduction to Type ® and Change (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 2004), p. 4.
Some Key Words Associated with 31 Thinking Head Distant Things Objective Critique Analyze Firm but fair Feeling Heart Personal People Subjective Praise Understand Merciful
Judging or Perceiving 32 Our attitude toward the external world and how we orient ourselves to it Source: I. B. Myers, Introduction to Type ®, 6 th ed. (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 1998), p. 10.
J–P 33 People who prefer Judging: Want the external world to be organized and orderly Look at the world and see decisions that need to be made People who prefer Perceiving: Seek to experience the world, not organize it Look at the world and see options that need to be explored We all use both attitudes, but usually not with equal comfort.
People Who Prefer Judging 34 Like to make plans and follow them Like to get things settled and finished Like environments with structure and clear limits Enjoy being decisive and organizing others Handle deadlines and time limits comfortably Plan ahead to avoid last-minute rushes
People Who Prefer Perceiving 35 Like to respond resourcefully to changing situations Like to leave things open, gather more information Like environments that are flexible; dislike rules and limits May not like making decisions, even when pressed Tend to think there is plenty of time to do things Often have to rush to complete things at the last minute
People Who Prefer Judging 36 Like rapidly getting to the bottom line and deciding Dislike being interrupted on a project, even for a more urgent one May make decisions too quickly, or cling to a plan May not notice new things that need to be done May seem rigid, demanding and inflexible to Perceiving types Need Perceiving for balance
People Who Prefer Perceiving 37 Want to explore all the options before deciding May start too many projects and have difficulty finishing them May have trouble making decisions, or have no plan May spontaneously change plans May seem disorganized and irresponsible to Judging types Need Judging for balance
Judging or Perceiving 38 Source: N. J. Barger & L. K. Kirby, Introduction to Type ® and Change (Mountain View, CA: CPP, 2004), p. 4.
Some Key Words Associated with 39 Judging Organized Decision Control Now Closure Deliberate Plan Perceiving Flexible Information Experience Later Options Spontaneous Wait
Understanding the 16 Types Not necessarily E + S + F + P = Type ISTJISFJINFJINTJ ISTPISFPINFPINTP ESTPESFPENFPENTP ESTJESFJENFJENTJ STs: The “bottom-line” people. “Who, what, where, when, why, just tell me what I need to know.” SFs: The “customer service” people “Who, what, when, where, why, how can I help everyone?” NFs: “Possibilities for people” “I see interesting potential for people’s development and growth.” NTs: “Possibilities for systems” “I can develop strategies for making the system work better.”
Understanding the 16 Types ISTJISFJ ISTPISFP ISs: “Thoughtful realists” Careful, dependable, preserve what is right and what is working. ESTPESFP ESTJESFJ ESs: “Action-oriented realists” Readily take action to make things happen in the here and now INFJINTJ INFPINTP INs: “Thoughtful innovators” Think through the big picture, develop complex understandings. ENFPENTP ENFJENTJ ENs: “Action-oriented innovators” Brainstorm ideas, make connections, see new ways.
Type Dynamics Value added: Dynamics Identifies and describes the dominant function – the core of the personality 2. Clarifies what we extravert – how others see us, our communication style 3. Makes clear that every type has a part that is introverted – not seen
Type Dynamics Dominant – our favorite, most used function Auxiliary – our second favorite function Tertiary - not in our type Inferior - not in our type, the function we are least comfortable using
Type Dynamics Dominant Auxiliary Tertiary Inferior E N F P EI S T J EI I
Type Dynamics Essential things to know: Extraverts extravert their dominant function and introvert their auxiliary function Introverts introvert their dominant function and extravert their auxiliary function What this means: With extraverts – what you see is what you get! With introverts – what you see is not their most preferred function.
Type Dynamics General = Dominant functionAide = Auxiliary function Extraverts: General is out front, Aide is helping Introverts: General is in the tent, Aide is out front
Type Dynamics Being “In the Grip” Moderate stress: Tendency to exaggerate the dominant function Extreme stress: May cause an eruption of the inferior function
Development of type dynamics through the lifespan The focus of the first half of life is on directing energy into the dominant and auxiliary functions, developing self-knowledge and competent ways to be in the world and in relationships. Midlife brings confusions and opportunities. The way one has always been becomes less satisfying and identity itself is questioned. Finally comes increased access to previously unacknowledged parts of the self, associated with the tertiary and inferior functions – the possibility of integration, wholeness, individuation. “ “ Briggs Myers, I. (1985). Introduction to Type, p. 35
MBTI Forms Form M Self-Scorable
MBTI Forms Form M - Profile 2 pages - Reported type - Clarity of reported preferences - Type description Form M - Complete 5 pages - Profile information - More extensive type description: descriptors, characteristics of type, type with others, type at work, potential blind spots for type
MBTI Forms Form M Interpretive Report 5 pages -Similar to the Form M Complete, except has more detail about type description - Information about type dynamics
MBTI Forms Form Q Step II Explores 20 facets – 5 for each preference – that gives more information about type. May answer questions like, “Why am I an introvert if I enjoy talking so much?”
Applications in clinical practice Increase clinician’s information regarding: Behavior in the therapeutic setting Which preferences may be underdeveloped Client behaviors when “In the Grip” How to help clients become more comfortable with their preferences Your own preferences and how they inform your therapeutic style
Other applications Relationships Understand and respect differences Recognize differing styles of focus of attention, where energy is drawn, how information is taken in, how decisions are made, and relationships to the outside world Parenting Become more aware of child’s own emerging preferences Recognize that parent’s type may be different than child’s and guards against assumption that what works for the parent will work for the child
Other applications Learning styles May help clients understand how they best take in information in a number of different settings: work, school, interests. Problem-solving Help clients learn which function they tend to use in problem-solving. May encourage growth of other, less- used functions.
Other applications Careers May help clients narrow fields of interest to them Business/teamwork Handling: - Conflict - Change - Communication difficulties Increase teamwork
Accessing the MBTI forms and reports CPP, Inc. Formerly Consulting Psychologists Press Sole publisher of the MBTI Accessing Materials